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14_PPTLecture_LEC+spr - Chapter 14 The Origin of Species In...

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        Chapter 14 The Origin of Species 0
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• In London Under ground mosquitoes belong to the species  Culex  molestus • Are active all year • Feed on humans and rodents • Named for their pesty behavior Above ground mosquitoes belong to a species called  Culex pipiens • Hibernate in the winter  • Prefer to bite birds
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• Mosquito Mystery – Speciation is the emergence of new species – In England and North America • Two species of mosquitoes exist and spread West Nile virus
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• The origin of species is the source of biological  diversity – Speciation, the origin of new species • Is at the focal point of evolution Figure 14.1
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– Macroevolution • Which begins with the origin of new species – Microevolution is natural selection and the gradual  adaptation of population to its environment
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CONCEPTS OF SPECIES What is a species? – Carolus Linnaeus, a Swedish physician and botanist Used physical characteristics to distinguish species   Developed the binomial system of naming organisms – Linnaeus’ system established the basis for taxonomy The branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the  diverse forms of life
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– Similarities between some species and variation  within a species • Can make defining species difficult Figure 14.2B Figure 14.2A
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The Biological Species Concept – The biological species concept defines a species  as • A population or group of populations whose  members can interbreed and produce fertile  offspring
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Other Species Concepts – The morphological species concept • Classifies organisms based on observable phenotypic traits – The ecological species concept • Defines a species by its ecological role – The phylogenetic species concept • Defines a species as a set of organisms representing a  specific evolutionary lineage
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• Reproductive barriers keep species separate – Reproductive barriers Serve to isolate a species’ gene pool and prevent  interbreeding Are categorized as prezygotic or postzygotic
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