Agar 1-5 - Ch 2 The Circle Language is a symbolic system...

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Ch. 2: The Circle Language is a symbolic system Historical linguistics is diachronic , “through time.” It’s the study of how languages change and shift and branch off from each other throughout history Synchronic linguistics, “with time,” study of a particular language as it existed at a particular point in time. Prescriptive linguistics: people telling people how they should speak Standard is the right way to speak Saussure wanted descriptive rather than prescriptive linguistics Social consequences of nonstandard speech Deficit theory : the view that differences between self and others are signs of the others’ deficiencies. Number-one types tend toward this view. Negative concord: when you put a negative in one place put it in another place. Speech is what people do when they’re actually using a language Language is the pure and clean way of saying it the right way Society is something that existed before an individual was born into it, and will continue to exist after they die. Society doesn’t dictate what a person will do, just what a person
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