12-Genomics - Genomics Chapter 19 Genomics Genome"the...

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Genomics Chapter 19 Genomics 0. Genome 0. “the entire collection of chromosomes present in the nucleus of each cell of an individual organism” 1. Genomics is the study of whole genomes 1. Structural Genomics 2. Functional Genomics 3. Comparative Genomics 2. Bioinformatics 3. Proteomics Stages in Gene Expression 0. Genome 0. Complete set of genes 1. Transcriptome 1. Complete set of genes expressed under particular conditions 2. Proteome 2. Complete set of proteins Model Organisms 3. Qualities of a “model organism” 3. genetic history known 4. short life cycle 5. matings produce large # of offspring 6. easy to handle 7. genetic variation must exist between individuals of a population Human Genome Project 4. Goals (1990) 4. Determine nucleotide sequence 5. Identify all genes 6. Store info in public databases 7. Develop tools for genetic analysis 8. Address ethical, legal and social issues (ELSIs) that may arise from project
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Structural Genomics 4. Two general approaches to genomic projects: 8. mapping approach 0. genetic (linkage) maps 1. Restriction (physical) maps 2. Ultimately finding a way to show how these two maps overlay one another and determine the DNA sequence 9. direct shotgun approach 3. broken in random overlapping fragments that are sequenced Mapping Approach - Genetic Maps 4. AKA linkage maps 5. provide rough estimate of gene locations relative to the location of other known genes 6. limitations: 0. poor resolution 0. humans - 850,00 - 1 million bp per cM 1. based on crossing over, so often are not accurate 7. HGP sought to have at least one “marker” per 1 Mb 5. DNA markers used in mapping 10.RFLPs 11.VNTRs 8. STRs 12.SNPs Mapping Approach - Genetic Maps 6. RFLPs 13.talked about before! 14.base-pair mutation that causes loss or addition of RE site 15.Very first type of DNA marker studied! 5. VNTRs 9. talked about before! 10.Variable number of tandem repeats 11.AKA minisatellite
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6. STRs 12.Short tandem repeats 13.very similar to VNTR, but the size of the repeated motif is much smaller (2 - 9 bp) 14.13 different STRs have been put together into a marker panel
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