Digestion - Digestion HP 230 PROF LEAH SCHUMACHER Digestion...

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Digestion HP 230 PROF. LEAH SCHUMACHER
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Digestion and Absorption Digestion – breaking down of food into nutrients that can be absorbed Mechanical – chewing and churning in the stomach Chemical – acid of the stomach and enzymes in the intestines break down food into molecules that can be absorbed Absorption – moving nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract into the body
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Anatomy of the Digestive Tract Gastrointestinal (GI) tract Flexible and muscular Path Mouth → esophagus → stomach → small intestine → large intestine → rectum → anus Lumen – is the term for the inner portion of the tube
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The Gastrointestinal Tract INGESTION THROUGH ELIMINATION Mouth : Chews and mixes food with saliva Pharynx: Directs food from mouth to esophagus Salivary glands : Secrete saliva Epiglottis: Protects airways during swallowing Trachea : Allows air to pass to and from lungs Esophagus : Passes food from the mouth to the stomach Esophageal sphincters : Allow passage from mouth to esophagus and from esophagus to stomach; prevent backflow from stomach to esophagus and from esophagus to mouth Diaphragm: Separates the abdomen from the thoracic cavity Stomach : Churns, mixes, and grinds food to a liquid mass; adds acid, enzymes, and fluid Pyloric sphincter : Allows passage from stomach to small intestine, prevents backflow from small intestine Liver : Manufactures bile salts, detergent-like substances, to help digest fats Gallbladder : Stores bile until needed Bile duct : Conducts bile from the gallbladder to the small intestine Appendix : Houses bacteria and lymph cells Small intestine : Secretes enzymes that digest all energy-yielding nutrients to smaller nutrient particles; cells of wall absorb nutrients
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