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Chapter_5_Cells_Outline[1]

Chapter_5_Cells_Outline[1] - Cells Chapter 4 Cells Smallest...

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Cells Chapter 4 Cells 0. Smallest complete units of life 1. Range in size from ~1 um to 5 cm depending on organism 2. Perform all of the functions of life Robert Hooke 3. Built microscope and observed thin slice of cork in 1665 4. Found “honeycomb” compartments in the slice- tiny little empty spaces 5. Called them cellulae which means small rooms in Latin Cells 0. Although Hooke described cells in 1665, biologists didn’t recognize their importance until centuries later 1. 1838- Matthias Schleiden (botanist) studied plant tissues and concluded that plants “are aggregates of fully individualized, independent, separate beings, namely the cells themselves.” 2. 1839- Schleiden studied animal cells and concluded that animal tissues are also made of cells Cell Theory 6. 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells, within which life processes occur 7. 2. Cells are the smallest living things. Nothing smaller than a cell can be considered alive 8. 3. Cells arise only from other cells. Cells
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9. Cells vary incredibly in size, shape, physical characteristics, function, and behavior 10.Cells are generally incredibly small 0. Human cells range from 5-20 um in diameter 1. Bacterial cells range from 1-9 um in diameter Cells 11.Cells are small because they function more efficiently this way 12.Cells must be able to efficiently pass messages to and from nucleus in order to control cellular processes 13.Cells must maximize surface area for passage of materials through the surface of the membrane Fig. 4.2 Other Ways of Increasing Surface Area 14.Some larger cells function efficiently by increasing surface area: 2. Neurons 0. Long, often less then 1 mm diameter so that internal area close to surface throughout 3. Microvilli 1. Finger-like projections- allow more absorption by increasing surface area (intestine, etc) Visualizing Cells 15.Resolution 4. Distance that two points can be apart and still be perceived as two points 2. Human Eye limit of resolution 100 µm 5. Increasing Resolution 3. Increase Magnification 0. Microscope 0. Depending on type- use varying glass lenses or methods of transmission of electrons to increase magnification, increase resolution
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Basic Types of Microscopes 16.Light Microscopes 6. Dissecting microscopes/ Stereomicroscopes 7. Compound light microscopes 17.Electron Microscopes 8. Transmission Electron Microscopes 9. Scanning Electron Microscopes Table 4.1 Basic Cell Structure 18.All Cells are enclosed by plasma membrane 19.Inside of cell is filled with cytoplasm and various other substances 10. Type of cell determines level of organization within cell
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