WHAP_Chapter_2_ - KEY POINTS Chapter 2 Essential Question...

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KEY POINTS Chapter 2 Essential Question: How did classical Chinese rulers establish a political framework that survived to the 20 th century? Identify : Dao – the way of nature, avoid excess and appreciating the balance of opposites Mandate of Heaven – stated, “heaven transferred its mandate to rule China” to the Zhou emperors (Sons of Heaven) Middle Kingdom – the stretch of territory from the Hwang He River to the Yangtze River Analects – written by Confucius, contained Confucian doctrine Dynasty – family of kings Primogeniture – first born son of the same parents, would inherit property and position alike Patterns in Classical China What three dynasties ruled China during the Classical Era? Zhou, Qin, and Han Dynasties Describe how the Zhou government operated. They didn’t have a powerful government but ruled through alliances with regional princes and noble families. Rulers lacked the ability to control their territories directly and gave large regional estates to family members and supporters. In exchange for land, the supporters had to provide the government with tax revenues and troops. So it resulted in regional disloyalties and the decline of the Zhou Dynasty. List what accomplishments were made by the Zhou? They extended the territory of China by taking over the Yangtze River Valley. It provided wheat-growing in the north and rice-growing in the south, which encouraged population growth. The Zhou heightened the focus on the central government itself through the Mandate of Heaven. They promoted linguistic unity and made Mandarin Chinese the official language. Many oral epics and stories gradually were recorded in writing and aided in the development of a common cultural currency. What Qin emperor took the title “First Emperor”? Shih Huangdi List what steps Shi Huangdi took to centralize his control of China. He extended the territory of China to the south reaching the South China Sea. He built the Great Wall of China to guard against barbarian invasions.
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