Chapter4-Review - Chapter 4-Review slides Downers Central...

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Chapter 4-Review slides
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Downers Central nervous system (CNS) depressants Suppress CNS functioning Sedation Muscle relaxation Drowsiness Coma Inhibit neurotransmitters Suppress stimulation centers
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Three major classes of depressants Opium/opiates/opioids Sedative-hypnotics Alcohol Four minor classes of depressants Skeletal muscle relaxants Antihistaminics Over-the-counter downers (OTC-downers) Look-a-like downers Classification of Depressants
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Opium Opium poppy plant Milky fluid of unripe seed pod Brown or black powder 25 known alkaloids   Major components-opiates Morphine Codeine
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Opium>Opiates >Opioids Opium Morphine Codiene Thebaine Opiates-derived from opium alkaloids Heroin Hydrocodone (Vicodin®) Oxycodone (OxyContin®) Hydromorphone (Dilaudid®) Opioids-fully synthetic opiate-like drugs Meperidine (Demerol®) Methadone Propoxyphene (Darvon®)
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Routes of Intake of Opium Oral ingestion   Chewed (20-30 minutes to brain) Blended in drinks Bitter taste Low concentration of active ingredients, Limited supplies Improvements Smoking Smoking pipes (7-10 seconds to brain) Wide spread non-medical use of opium More euphoria-more abuse Opium wars
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Refinement and increased potency Morphine-10x stronger than opium Wounded soldiers -American Civil War More addiction or morphinism Codeine-2x stronger than opium Cough syrups Diacetylmorphine from morphine-heroin   Crossed blood brain barrier faster than morphine Faster and more intense euphoria Led to huge increase in number of abusers
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IV Use-Intense rush Hypodermic needle-1853 High concentration drugs into blood stream 15-20 seconds to reach brain Intradermal or intramuscular injections 5-8 minutes to reach brain
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Patent Medicines 1800 -tonics and medications with opiates Physician induced addiction 4-8 times more prescriptions than today IV morphine for several neurological/ behavioral problems 56-71% of opium addicts were female
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20  Century Problems Non-medical use of opiates-illegal Production of heroin-illegal in the US in 1924 Till the 1920’s opioid addiction considered as medical problems Ban on opium led to increase in use of heroin Heroin smuggling and distribution by  criminal organizations Diversion of legal prescriptions-cough syrups, Oxycontin® 3.5 million Americans use prescription opiates and opioids illicitly  every month, 800,000 heroin abusers
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Heroin 5-10 million regular heroin users world wide US consumes around 3% of world’s heroin supply (10-15 metric  tons)
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Chapter4-Review - Chapter 4-Review slides Downers Central...

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