Chapter5-Reviews

Chapter5-Reviews - BIO-1033 Drugs and Society Chapter-5-...

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BIO-1033 Drugs and Society Chapter-5- Reviews  Janakiram Seshu, Ph.D Assistant Professor Department of Biology UTSA Office: MBT.1226 Phone: 458-6578 Email: j.seshu@utsa.edu  
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Alcohol and Society Alcohol is the most widely used psychoactive drug Global use-across many cultures 109 million American had an alcoholic beverage in the last month 13 million of the above are considered heavy drinkers (5 drinks at  a sitting, 5 times a month) Yesterday- 25 to 30 % of hospital admissions due to direct or indirect effect of  alcohol One-half of murder victims and one-half of murderers drank alcohol More than one-half of 300 rapes that occurred involved alcohol Over two million people died due to alcohol
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Alcohols Ethyl alcohol-least toxic Methyl alcohol-methanol, a toxic industrial solvent,  blindness Isopropyl alcohol-rubbing alcohol, shaving lotions, etc. Butyl alcohol-industrial processes
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Alcoholic beverages Wine-fruits ferment, 12-14% alcohol  Beer-grains ferment, 4-5% alcohol  Distilled spirits-distilled from several sources with different  levels of alcohol Brandy-distilled wine Rum-distilled from sugar cane or molasses Vodka-distilled from potatoes Whiskey and gin- distilled from grains
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Absorption Along various sites in the gastrointestinal tract Stomach (10-20% of absorption for men) Small intestine-capillaries in the walls of the intestine through passive  diffusion Colon Gender differences Women have higher alcohol levels than men for same amount of  alcohol 30% more alcohol absorbed by women from same number of drinks  than men Feel the psychoactive effects faster and more intense Women have lower percentage of body water than men-less water to dilute  alcohol Women have less alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme in the stomach Hormonal levels affect the rate of alcohol metabolism
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Absorption contd… Chronic alcohol use more physical damage to women than men Highest levels of alcohol in blood in 30 to 90 minutes after  consumption Factors that speed absorption for men and women Amount and drinking rate Drinking on empty stomach Drinks with high alcohol content In combination with carbonated drinks Warming alcohol Factors that slow alcohol consumption Eating before or while drinking Diluting drinks with ice, water or fruit juice
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Metabolism Alcohol considered as toxin and  excreted out 90-98% of alcohol neutralized  through metabolism Oxidation by liver Levels of ADH/ALDH vary Hereditary factors Variations in reactions Excretion by kidneys High energy source Poor in nutrients/malnutrition
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Chapter5-Reviews - BIO-1033 Drugs and Society Chapter-5-...

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