Chapter6-Reviews

Chapter6-Reviews - Chapter 6-Review slides Overview...

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Chapter 6-Review slides
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Overview Classification General Effects LSD, Mushrooms, and other indole psychedelics Peyote, MDMA and other phenylalkylamine psychedelics Belladonna and other anticholinergic psychedelics Ketamine, PCP and other psychedelics Marijuana and other Cannabinols
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Overview Psychedelic plants and fungi known for a long time 4000 plants have psychedelic (hallucinogenic) properties Psychedelic drugs used more for altering one’s consciousness and perception Not for a ‘rush’ Social, religious, ceremonial and medical rites
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Classification Uppers stimulate central nervous system (CNS) Downers depress CNS All Arounders (psychedelics) alter user’s perception Reason takes a back seat Intensified sensations Illusions Delusions Hallucinations
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Main classes of psychedelics Indole psychedelics-( LSD-lysergic acid diethylamide, psilocybin  mushroom) Phenylalkylamines (peyote, MDMA [ecstasy])  Anticholinergics (belladonna, datura) Separate class (ketamine, PCP, dextromethorphan) Cannabinols(marijuana)
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General Effects Assessing the effects Intensity of effects Experience with drug Emotional makeup of the user Mood and mental state of use Any pre-existing mental illness Surroundings in which drug is taken Physical and mental effects Hallucinogens stimulate the sympathetic nervous system Increased pulse rate, blood pressure Several neurotransmitters are affected Overload of sensory pathways making user acutely aware of all sensation Auditory signals jump to visual pathway-’seen’ as shifting lights Crossing over/mixing of senses known as ‘synesthesia'
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General Effects contd. . Illusions Mistaken perception of external stimulus (rope as snake) Delusions Mistaken idea not swayed by reason or by other compelling evidence (who thinks he/she can fly) Hallucinations Sensory experience that does not come from external stimulus (seeing a creature that does not exists)
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LSD Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) ‘Acid’, ‘blotter’, etc., as street names Semi-synthetic form of ergot fungus toxin that infects rye and other cereal crops Ergot poisoning common in the past Gangrenous ergotism “St. Anthony’s fire”-feverish hallucinations and gangrenous extremities Convulsive ergotism -visual and auditory hallucinations LSD first extracted in1938 by Dr. Hoffman as a circulatory stimulant LSD for mental illness, alcoholism investigating thought processes LSD-25 used to explore consciousness and feelings  “Turn on, tune in and drop out”- Dr. Timothy Leary slogan Use of LSD made illegal in 1996
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LSD contd. . Epidemiology
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Chapter6-Reviews - Chapter 6-Review slides Overview...

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