Prelim 2 - Study Guide - CHAPTER SEVEN (251-289) Be able to...

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CHAPTER SEVEN (251-289) Be able to name and describe the first two stages in Erikson’s psychosocial theory and the ages to  which they apply. o Infancy takes places from birth – 18 months o Early childhood takes place from 18 – 36 months When do infants begin social smiling; when do they begin laughing? Infants, when provoked by the stimulus of the human face, begin social smiling between 6 and 10 weeks, and begin to laugh between 3 and 4 months. What do we know about the development of the four basic emotions of happiness, anger, sadness,  and fear in infants? The four basic emotions of happiness, anger, sadness and fear are universal in humans. o The dynamic systems perspective: children coordinate separate skills into more effective, emotionally expressive systems as the central nervous Sensitive, contingent caregiver communication, in which parents mirror aspects of baby’s emotional behavior help them to construct expressions resembling those of adults. Happiness is expressed first as a smile, then through exuberant laughter. o During the newborn stage, babies smile when full, during sleep, and in response to gentle touches & sounds. o By the end of the first month, infants start to smile at eye-catching objects. They also begin to react to parent’s faces by cooing, knitting their brows, and moving their arms & legs excitedly. o Around the middle of the first year infants begin to smile around familiar people, and develop multiple smiles with various meanings. Between 8 and 10 months, infants interrupt their play to relay their delight to attentive adults. o Older infants react with anger in a wider range of situations. They are also able to identify who caused them pain or removed a toy. This rise in anger is adaptive.
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o As infants become capable of intentional behavior, they want to control their own actions and the effects they produce. Loss of contingent control evokes especially strong angry responses. o New motor capacities enable an angry infant to defend herself or overcome an obstacle. o When posed with an unresponsive adult, 2 to 7 month old infants tried every facial expression to evoke a response. When these efforts failed, children began to cry or frown. This is a built-in response to lack of communication. Fear rises during the second half of the first year. o Infant-rearing practices modify stranger-anxiety; collective communities encourage passing babies from one caregiver to the next to limit anxiety. o
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This note was uploaded on 05/07/2008 for the course HD 1150 taught by Professor Schelhas-miller,c. during the Fall '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Prelim 2 - Study Guide - CHAPTER SEVEN (251-289) Be able to...

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