Final - Full Review - PRELIM ONE FOUNDATIONS OF DEVELOPMENT...

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PRELIM ONE – FOUNDATIONS OF DEVELOPMENT THREE BASIC ISSUES: Continuous vs. discontinuous One course vs. many courses Nature vs. nurture RESILIENCY: Personal characteristics Warm parental relationship Social support outside the family o Extracurricular activities NATURE, CONTINUOUS, ONE COURSE o Launched the normative approach Measures of behavior – taken on a large data set Age-related averages computed. Development is the product of evolution – children are naturally knowledgeable about their needs. PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
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FREUD! o Children move through a series of stages – confront conflicts between biology and social. Sexual impulses move from oral – anal – genital Three parts of the personality collide Id, ego, superego ID: Biological needs EGO: Conscious, re-directs Id impulses SUPEREGO: conscious from 3-6years PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY ERIKSON! o In addition to mediating the id and the superego, the EGO AQUIRES ATTITUDES AND SKILLS. o Development must be understood in relation to the culture and the environment BEHAVIORISM Classical Conditioning o WATSON! Loud sound fear (innate response) Loud sound + neutral stimulus fear Neutral stimulus fear Operant Conditioning
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o SKINNER! Following behavior with a variety of reinforcers INCREASES frequency Social Cognitive Theory o BANDURA Modeling, imitation, observational learning Develop sense of right & wrong through watching other children engage in self-blame and praise. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY PIAGET! o Children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world Do not realize that a hidden object continues to exist. SENSORIMOTOR Touching, feeling, testing – solve problems. PREOPERATIONAL Development of language and make-believe OPERATIONAL Reasoning becomes logical o FORMAL Abstract, systematic thinking
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ETHOLOGY DARWIN! o Concerned with the adaptive behavior and its evolutionary history. o CRITICAL PERIOD = limited time span during which the child is biologically capable of acquiring certain behaviors. o SENSITIVE PERIOD = time that is optimal for acquiring these behaviors. Less defined than a critical period SOCIO-CULTURAL THEORY VYGOTSKY! o How culture (values, beliefs, customs) affect the next generation Cognitive development is socially mediated – children depend ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS BRONFENBRENNER! o
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Final - Full Review - PRELIM ONE FOUNDATIONS OF DEVELOPMENT...

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