Chapter 18- The Cardiovascular System-Heart Assignment (2)...

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Chapter 18 – The Cardiovascular System: The Heart For this assignment, please read the chapter and answer the questions below. Please type your answers in red or blue color. Please note that points may be deducted if answers are not submitted in these colors.Cinthia CorrCardiovascular System:The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, and vessels, arteries, capillaries and veins.What is the function of this system?Heart:The heart is a hollow, ___cone_________-shaped, muscular pump within the ___thoracic_________ cavity.The average adult heart is _14______ cm long and __9_______ cm wide.The heart lies in the mediastinum ___ under the sternum; its apex extends to the _fifth_______ intercostal space.Pericardium:It is made of a tough outer bag that surrounds a double-layered sac. This tough, outer layer is composed of dense connective tissue and is called the __fibrous___________ pericardium.Double-layered sac. The innermost layer of this sac immediately surrounds the heart and is called the ____viseral________________ pericardium (also called __epicardium___). At the base of the heart, this inner layer folds back on itself to become the __parietal__ pericardium. Between the layers of this sac is a potential space called the __pericardial__ cavity and it is filled with _serous________ fluid. What is the function of this fluid? Allows the layers to easily glide against each other during heart contraction and relaxation.Wall of the HeartThe wall of the heart is composed of three distinct layers.The outermost layer, the __
___________, is made up of connective tissue and epithelium, and contains blood and lymph capillaries along with __
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________ is smooth and is made of connective tissue and epithelium. It is continuous with the endothelium of major vessels joining the heart.Heart chambers:The heart has four internal chambers: two on top and two below.

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