philosophynotes

philosophynotes - The Problem of the Criterion 14/01/2008...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
The Problem of the Criterion 14/01/2008 09:59:00 Review The problem of the criterion is the problem of begging the question against the skeptics. Skeptics maintain – insofar as the problem is concerned – that there is no way of escaping the circle of providing the criterion for knowledge without begging the question against their claim. Conceptual analysis A concept can be analyzed by specifying its necessary conditions and sufficient conditions. o It is not necessary for a living thing to have a brain. Nonetheless, for anything to have a living human being brain is sufficient for it to be a living being. o Sufficient condition e.g., being an offspring is sufficient that it has parents. o Necessary condition e.g., having two legs isn’t necessary for anything to be a human being. Water = H20 Bachelor = male, adult, unmarried Euthyphro’s analysis of piety A couple of suggestions by Euthyphro o Doing what I am doing o Doing what gods like
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Appearance vs. Reality 14/01/2008 09:59:00 The Question It appears that I’m in the presence of things other than myself. Are there, really? Can I ever tell? If I can, how can I tell? o It seems obvious that I can be mistaken about the things around me Sense perceptions (dreaming, hallucinating, etc) Mathematical reasoning (malicious or evil demon) Pollock’s “A Brain in a Vat” Example: Can Mike ever tell if he’s a brain in a vat? Philosophical skepticism Skepticism about the existence of the external world Skepticism about our knowledge of the external world o Epistemology (theory of knowledge)
Background image of page 2
The Problem of the Criterion 14/01/2008 09:59:00 Review I could be mistaken about my senses The possibilities like Descartes’ malicious demon or Pollock’s mad scientists highlight the fact that I could be mistaken about things that appear most obvious to me. The Questions (and framework for answers) The problem: o I know that I’m in the classroom How do you know? o Because I think I’m here How good is your standard? o Is it possible for me to know anything at all? Two pairs of questions: o What do we know? What is the extent of our knowledge? o How are we to decide whether we know? What are the criteria of knowledge? Proposed answers Skeptics: Either we don’t know anything or we have know way of deciding whether we know Methodism: There are ways to tell whether we know Particularism: We do know certain things
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Conceptual Knowledge 2/15/2008 01:36:00 AM Knowledge is power We give authority to people with knowledge Something knows that something. We brainstorm about a notion o “Shin knows that Clinton won the primary” Shin knew that there was a primary. Shin understands that Clinton won the primary.
Background image of page 4
Image of page 5
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 05/07/2008 for the course PHL 100 taught by Professor Kim during the Spring '08 term at Central Mich..

Page1 / 12

philosophynotes - The Problem of the Criterion 14/01/2008...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 5. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online