102 notes - History Chapter 16 Background to the Scientific...

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History Chapter 16Background to the Scientific Revolution-Medieval Science-Renaissance Humanists-Contradictions of Aristotle and Galen-Renaissance artists and their impact on scientific study- Close Observation of Nature- Christianized Ptolemaie Universe-Copernicus- Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)-Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)- The telescope- The Starry Messenger-Condemned by the Church- Scientific leadership passes to England, France, and the NetherlandsI.Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)a.Interest in Hermetric thought and Mathematical magicb.“Music of the Spheres”c.Laws of Planetary Motiond.Discredits Ptolemaic SystemII.Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)a.The telescopeb.The starry messengerc.Condemned by the churchi.Called to the Spanish inquisitionii.Wrote one more book, which really upset the churchd.Scientific leadership passes to England, France, and the Netherlandsi.This was sparked by Galileo’s book.III.Isaac Newton (1642-1727)a.Chair of Mathematics at Cambridge Universityb.Mathematical Principals of Natural Philosophy (1684-1686):ThePrincipiai.Three laws of motionc.Gravityi.Every object in the universe is attracted to a larger mass, and thefurther the distance becomes, the weaker the attractiond.World seen in mechanistic termse.GodIV.Advances In Medicinea.Medieval medicine dominated by Galeni.Had produced works after dissecting animalsii.He transferred this information to compare to humansiii.Never actually dissected humans
iv.Two separate blood systemsv.Four “body humours”1.flem2.blood3.water4.bileb.Paracelsus (1493-1541)i.Actually dissected the human bodyc.Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)d.William HarveyV.Women in the Origins of Modern Sciencea.New Opportunities for Womenb.Largely informal Educationc.Margaret Cavendish (1623-1673)i.Observations upon Experimental Philosophyii.Grounds of Natural Philosophyiii.Attacked rationalist and empiricist approaches to scientificknowledge1.only God had power to adjust science, not humansiv.Was not recognized in the scientific world, for she was a womand.German womeni.1 of 7 German astronomers was a womanii.Maria Winkelmann (1670-1710)1.discovered comet2.Rejected for a post by the Berlin adVI.Debate over the nature of value of womena.Women portrayed as inherently base, prone to vice, easily swayed, and“sexually insatiable.”b.Women joined debate in the 17thcentury an reject this viewc.Science used to “perpetrate old stereotypes about women.”d.Scientific revolution reaffirmed traditional ideas about women’s nature.VII.Toward a New earth: Descartes, Rationalism, and a New View of Humankinda.Rene Descartes (1596-1650)b.Discourse on Method (1637)c.“I think, therefore I am.”i.Nothing is absolutely true unless it has evidence to be true.ii.He thinks, therefore it existsd.Separation of mind and matteri.Two types of substancesii.The mind is separate from the bodye.Cartesian Dualismi.Was the first to use letters of the alphabet for unknown andknownsf.Father of modern rationalismVIII.The Spread of Scientific Knowledgea.The scientific method
i.

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