102 notes - History Chapter 16 Background to the Scientific...

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Unformatted text preview: History Chapter 16 Background to the Scientific Revolution-Medieval Science-Renaissance Humanists-Contradictions of Aristotle and Galen-Renaissance artists and their impact on scientific study- Close Observation of Nature- Christianized Ptolemaie Universe-Copernicus- Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)-Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)- The telescope- The Starry Messenger-Condemned by the Church- Scientific leadership passes to England, France, and the Netherlands I. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) a. Interest in Hermetric thought and Mathematical magic b. “Music of the Spheres” c. Laws of Planetary Motion d. Discredits Ptolemaic System II. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) a. The telescope b. The starry messenger c. Condemned by the church i. Called to the Spanish inquisition ii. Wrote one more book, which really upset the church d. Scientific leadership passes to England, France, and the Netherlands i. This was sparked by Galileo’s book. III. Isaac Newton (1642-1727) a. Chair of Mathematics at Cambridge University b. Mathematical Principals of Natural Philosophy (1684-1686): The Principia i. Three laws of motion c. Gravity i. Every object in the universe is attracted to a larger mass, and the further the distance becomes, the weaker the attraction d. World seen in mechanistic terms e. God IV. Advances In Medicine a. Medieval medicine dominated by Galen i. Had produced works after dissecting animals ii. He transferred this information to compare to humans iii. Never actually dissected humans iv. Two separate blood systems v. Four “body humours” 1. flem 2. blood 3. water 4. bile b. Paracelsus (1493-1541) i. Actually dissected the human body c. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) d. William Harvey V. Women in the Origins of Modern Science a. New Opportunities for Women b. Largely informal Education c. Margaret Cavendish (1623-1673) i. Observations upon Experimental Philosophy ii. Grounds of Natural Philosophy iii. Attacked rationalist and empiricist approaches to scientific knowledge 1. only God had power to adjust science, not humans iv. Was not recognized in the scientific world, for she was a woman d. German women i. 1 of 7 German astronomers was a woman ii. Maria Winkelmann (1670-1710) 1. discovered comet 2. Rejected for a post by the Berlin ad VI. Debate over the nature of value of women a. Women portrayed as inherently base, prone to vice, easily swayed, and “sexually insatiable.” b. Women joined debate in the 17 th century an reject this view c. Science used to “perpetrate old stereotypes about women.” d. Scientific revolution reaffirmed traditional ideas about women’s nature. VII. Toward a New earth: Descartes, Rationalism, and a New View of Humankind a. Rene Descartes (1596-1650) b. Discourse on Method (1637) c. “I think, therefore I am.” i. Nothing is absolutely true unless it has evidence to be true....
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This note was uploaded on 05/07/2008 for the course HIST History 10 taught by Professor Unknown. during the Spring '08 term at Ole Miss.

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102 notes - History Chapter 16 Background to the Scientific...

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