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Comm 100 Review

Comm 100 Review - 1 Small Group Collection of individuals...

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1) Small Group- Collection of individuals who: o Interact w/ each other o Have some purpose or goal (friends hang out to have fun) o Influence one another (persuade others in the group) o See selves as part of a group (identify with particular group and each other) o Have rules/norms for behavior (pragmatic/well specified) o Are dependent on one another (mutually interdependent, if one person left it would make the whole group different) -ALL SATISFY ALL 6 PARTS IN ORDER TO BE CONSIDERED A SMALL GROUP -Optimal Size for a small group= 5-7, maximizes creativity, productivity, minimizes loss of efficiency, loss of satisfaction 2) Cohesiveness- group morale, degree of closeness, how attractive a group is to its members - as it increases: o Communication and participation increase o Satisfaction increases o Productivity can DECREASE -When group size increases: o A few people begin to dominate talk o More time needed to reach decision o Subgroups may form o Satisfaction of each member decreases 3) Four Phases of Group Development 1) Forming- identify and learn about the group -Much intragroup agreement in this stage -Little fighting -Little disclosure -Few novel ideas -Not much work gets done 2) Storming- Conflict to assert individuality -Assertion of individuality -Confusion over goals increase -Minimal work is accomplished -Control and affection are the issue 3) Norming- balance achieved in response to “storming phase” -Group cohesion begins to emerge -Group starts functioning more smoothly, as a unit -Too much agreement is as problematic as conflict 4) Performing- the period of consensus and maximum productivity -Few negative or unfavorable comments expressed -Focus can now be on the task rather than only on group function 4) Groupthink- a problem-solving process in which ideas accepted by the group are not really examined, and opposing ideas are suppressed CONDITIONS OF GROUP THINK:
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o Authoritarian style leader with “pet proposals” o Group isolated from real world o Group does not have a definite decision making procedure o Group members are very similar o The decision to be made is complex and arousing SIX WAYS TO AVOID GROUP THINK: 1) Have a “critical evaluation” 2) Leader doesn’t state preferred course of action until late in process 3) Outside people are consulted 4) Divide the group into “subgroups” 5) Rehash earlier decisions 6) After plan implemented, keep searching for problems 8 Main symptoms: 1. Members share the illusion of invulnerability, providing the impetus to take extraordinary risks while failing to see early signs of danger 2. Warnings and other negative feedback are rationalized away 3. Members believe they are moral and thus can ignore the ethical implications of what they do 4. Leaders of other groups are considered evil and, therefore, not people with whom negotiations are reasonable 5. Members who stray from the group’s beliefs are pressured to conform 6. Members avoid speaking out when not in favor of the group’s actions, thus self-censure replaces group censure 7.
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Comm 100 Review - 1 Small Group Collection of individuals...

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