Study Guide Exam 2

Study Guide Exam 2 - Exam 2 A Brief Tour of Early Computers...

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Unformatted text preview: Exam 2 A Brief Tour of Early Computers Know the four early computers names: ABC o Built mid 1941 o 700 pounds, size of a desk, 1 mile of wiring o First to demonstrate certain features defining a computer: Use of binary digits to represent data Calculation with electronics rather than mechanical parts First one Separate calculation and memory functions Use of regenerative memory (data needs to be refreshed) whenever we go to a new website and refresh we refresh because the data that is stored in your computer tends to leak away need to make sure its updated o Limited capabilities Need a human operator to set switches to set up functions Input and output have to be separated into two stages: Primary and secondary Designed to solve linear equations only only one thing the machine can do ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator o Developed by John mauchly and colleagues o Takes up 680 square feet ( a 1-bedroom apartment) o Can multiply two 10-digit numbers in 1/300 th of a second o APPLICATIONS military power Calculation of artillery fire Design of hydrogen bomb o First large scale machine re-programmable to solve a wide range of problems o Programmed by re-wiring circuits and manipulating switches Old school switchboard operator o Input and output relied on punch cards gave back in a form of punch cards o Punch cards demonstrate an important principle of programmability: You can change the output of the machine by changing the instructions on the cards without changing the design of the machine o Punch card programmed loom MIT Whirlwind: o Operational in 1951 o Designed to run flight simulations to train bomber crews o Features: One of the earliest use of video displays for output One of the first times we see video First computer that operated in real time Real time computing: The machines response to inut is under real-time deadlines Theres a time-constraint to it If response is well-executed, but not within deadline, it is a FAILURE Machine has to respond to some kind of input under time constraints Example of a real-time system: AUTOMOBILE AIR BAGS UNIVAC : Universal Automatic Computer o Developed by the designers of the ENIAC in 1951 o First commercially available computer (cost $1.5 million) o Customers include Census Bureau General Electric Du Pont Insurance companies o First computer designed for administrative and business use (contrast to earlier computers scientific focus) o Designed to calculate many simple arithmetic problems rather than complex algebraic problems Pretty simple data, but there are many many of these Do a lot of simple things o Famous application: CBS used the UNIVAC at the Atomic Energy Commission to predict correctly the 1952 presidential election winner, using a sample of 1% of voting population o Large, centrally controlled...
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This note was uploaded on 05/07/2008 for the course COMM 202 taught by Professor Thomas during the Fall '06 term at USC.

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Study Guide Exam 2 - Exam 2 A Brief Tour of Early Computers...

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