Lecture Notes_Unconvetional Genetic Systems_thru_Cancer

Lecture Notes_Unconvetional Genetic Systems_thru_Cancer -...

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Unconventional Genetic Systems: Includes all genetic material that is not part of the cell’s nuclear genome - Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) - Chloraplast DNA (cpDNA) - Mobile genes : an assemblage of nucleic acids that can move around the nuclear genome and between individual cells - note – anything that is not a chromosome Mobile gene example: Plasmids Viruses Transposons - DNA segments that move spontaneously from one region of the genome to another Episomes Viruses - An assemblage of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) and proteins - May also include lipids and carbohydrates - Not considered alive o Recall: Requirements of life = reproduction, growth, metabolism o Viruses need host to reproduce/metabolize - Structure (Very organized): o Core of genetic material (3-100 coding regions/genes) o Capsid – protein coat Fxn – protect genetic material Fxn - Assist virus in infecting the cells it was designed to infect o Membrane envelope Stolen from previous host membrane o Simple viruses –
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Core + capsid o Complex viruses – Core + capsid + membrane envelope - Very specific o Ex – cold/flu virus only initially infects nasal cells - Mechanisms to enter host cell: o 1) docks and injects genetic material through host membrane o 2) brought in by endocytosis (by tricking host) o 3) fuses with membrane of host cell (by using previous host membrane as cover) - Once in host cell o Viral genetic material gets host material to make viral DNA/RNA - Autonomous Replication – viral genetic material remains separate from host cell DNA and can be replicated alone - Integrated Replication – viral genetic material becomes integrated with host cell DNA o Each time the host divides/replicates, so will the virus o Tumor Viruses Creates a mass of cells with viral genes o Oncogene Viral genes that affect growth control of host cell - RNA Viruses o Often can be immediately translated - Retrovirus o ssRNA o undergoes reverse transcriptase o viral RNA is reverse transcribed into viral DNA and integrated into host cell genome o RNA tumor virus
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o If it contains onkogene, changes to cancer
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10/27 HIV RNA Virus Shows up with reverse transcriptase Steals envelope from previous host Helper T-cells = Target cells Destruction of Helper T-cells cripples the immune system History 2 main classes: HIV 1 – most common Mutates rapidly Many genetic strands due to mutations Related to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Found in chimps Did not cause other diseases Jumped from chimps to humans 3 times 1930 – most recent and common jump HIV 2 – very rare More common in Africa Slower and milder Related to SIV in sooty mangabee Jumped to humans 4 times Cause of increase in Africa – Social change Place of origination CD4 Surface Protein – Found on T-Cells Virus attaches to this receptor Glicoproteins (of virus) attach to the CD4 Steps of infection –
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Attach (to CD4) Enter Dismember capsid Reverse transcription Viral DNA resides in nucleus
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This note was uploaded on 05/08/2008 for the course BIO 311C taught by Professor Satasivian during the Fall '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Lecture Notes_Unconvetional Genetic Systems_thru_Cancer -...

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