Chapter 21 Summary

Kuby Immunology

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Chapter 21 1. Cancer 1 in 3 in US will get cancer 1 in 5 will die from cancer Cancer cells are altered self cells that have escaped normal growth-regulating mechanisms Neoplasm = tumor a. Benign versus malignant Carcinomas (80% all cancers) tumor arises on skin or epithelial lining of internal organs and  glands Leukemias and Lymphomas (9%)– tumors of hematopoietic cells of bone marrow Leukemias prolif as single cells Lymphomas prolif as tumor masses Sarcomas (1%) mesodermal connective tissues (bone, fat, cartilage) Transformation – cells changed so can make tumor b. Multi-step process Initiation – changes in genome Promotion – promoters stimulate cell division leading to transformation c. Genetic and epigenetic events d. Risk factors e. Immune editing 2. Oncogenes/Protooncogenes Rous sarcoma virus – retrovirus carries oncogene that encodes a protein kinase that catalyzes the  phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on proteins Protooncogenes – Temin found that normal cell genomes can have “oncogenes” that the virus can  acquire Bishop and Varmus discovered one such protooncogene in normal chicken cells a. Genes that induce cellular proliferation Category of oncogenes and proto-oncogenes Growth factors and growth factor receptors i. Erb-B/HER2/Neu ii. Burketts lymphoma 8/14 (c-myc/Ig Heavy chain) translocation
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Chapter 21 Summary - Chapter 21 1 Cancer 1 in 3 in US will...

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