Chapter9,15 criminology - CRIMINOLOGY CHAPTER 9 3 MAJOR...

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CRIMINOLOGY CHAPTER 9 3 MAJOR FACILITATIONS OF CRIME: 1) Drugs 2) Alcohol 3) Firearms Routine activities theory: sees crime as a function of people’s everyday behavior. à Motivated offenders à Target suitability à Guardianship Contextual factors that they find to be important in explaining crime rates and risks of victimization: Neighborhood’s income level, unemployment rate, residential mobility, ethnic heterogeneity, # of single- parent households Lifestyle theory: proposes that individuals who commit violent and property crimes, abuse drugs and alcohol, spend more time on the street, and associate with deviant peers are themselves exposed to high risk of victimization Targets of Crime: unlimited number of targets for crime, what criminals see is not what we see day-to-day à Property crimes: most thieves steal cash or property & either used personally or converted to cash or drugs; usually traded to a fence - a receiver of stolen goods who pays the thief 1/10 to 1/3 of the retail value Robbery is quicker and more direct which is better than burglary which is time consuming and labor intensive à Pick pockets: Men (carry more money), Age (Older carry more money), & Race (white carry more money) Vulnerability of Victims: A major factor that criminals consider in choosing targets is the vulnerability of their victims. Check forgers believe some stores are more willing to accept checks from strangers and are therefore easier to victimize. Opportunistic robbers - typically young, male members of minority groups who operate gangs tend to choose victims who are elderly , female , and alone Professionals: observe the dwelling place, its occupants, and their possessions for a time prior to break-in Most muggable people - walked “gesturally” instead of “posturally” or figure-8 sway walking Reasons for selecting Targets: 1 - Ease of access 44% 2 - Appearance of affluence 3 - Inconspicuous setting Information wanted before-hand: 1 - Whether occupants are present 2 - alarm ? 3 - valuables are available Victim Proneness - People victimized repeatedly “hot dots” personal characteristics, social situation, physical location, & relationship to offender Victim Proneness Factors
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