Chapter10,11 criminology - Criminology Chapter 10 Criminal...

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Criminology Chapter 10 Criminal Careers: is not an “occupation,” as we commonly understand that term, but a sequence of crimes over time can be analyzed much like a career in a legitimate occupation, for both involve skills, tasks, and commitment. Criminologists find little value to studying criminal careers Temporal boundary conception of the criminal career: looking at the age when criminal careers begin, length of time, kinds of crime, and age when career ceases Age of Onset: the year at which criminal activity begins Age of Termination: year it ceases Duration of career: beginning to end Persistence: the continual engagement in criminal activity throughout a career Desistance: the casual process leading to the termination of criminal activity Crime switching: the change from one type of crime to another Developmental criminology: changes in offenses within individuals over time Activation: the process through which criminal activities are initiated and stimulated, and through which offending increases over time in frequency Aggravation: increase in seriousness “Zigzag Path” - criminals who jump back and forth from crime to non-crime pursuits Ÿ This is due to the path of least resistance because of lack of jobs and criminal contact Recruitment into a Criminal career: often begins during adolescence, early delinquency frequently is a prerequisite for an adult career in theft and violence Ÿ Criminal careers are closely tied to adult criminals and adolescent relationships Typologies of Criminal Careers: offense itself, alone or with others, offender’s self-concept and attitudes, patter of crime over the offender’s lifetime, family background, peer-group associations, and contacts with law-enforcement agencies Violent predatory offender: engages in robbery, assault, drug dealing, and sometimes burglary/ theft Chronic offender: a person who violates the law frequently; 3 or more self-reported crimes OR 9 or more convictions Delinquent Careers were studied by Wolfgang, Figlio, and Sellin: The likelihood of never again being stopped by police for delinquency is greatest after the first contact; after a second contact, the chance of continuing in a delinquent career is greater. The earlier contact with police the most likely the offender will
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