Solutions I - solutions Chapter Goals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The...

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solutions
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Chapter Goals The Dissolution Process 1. Spontaneity of the Dissolution Process 2. Dissolution of Solids in Liquids 3. Dissolution of Liquids in Liquids (Miscibility) 4. Dissolution of Gases in Liquids 5. Rates of Dissolution and Saturation 6. Effect of Temperature on Solubility 7. Effect of Pressure on Solubility 8. Molality and Mole Fraction
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Chapter Goals Colligative Properties of Solutions 9. Lowering of Vapor Pressure and Raoult’s Law 10.Fractional Distillation 11.Boiling Point Elevation 12.Freezing Point Depression 13.Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression or Boiling Point Elevation 14.Colligative Properties and Dissociation of Electrolytes 15.Osmotic Pressure
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Chapter Goals Colloids 16.The Tyndall Effect 17.The Adsorption Phenomena 18.Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Colloids
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The Dissolution Process Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances. Dissolving medium is called the solvent solvent . Dissolved species are called the solute solute . There are three states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas) which when mixed two at a time gives nine different kinds of mixtures. Seven of the possibilities can be homogeneous. Two of the possibilities must be heterogeneous.
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The Dissolution Process Seven Homogeneous Possibilities Solute Solvent Example Solid Liquid salt water Liquid Liquid mixed drinks Gas Liquid carbonated beverages Liquid Solid dental amalgams Solid Solid alloys Gas Solid metal pipes Gas Gas air Two Heterogeneous Possibilities Solid Gas dust in air Liquid Gas clouds, fog
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Spontaneity of the Dissolution Process As an example of dissolution, let’s assume that the solvent is a liquid. Two major factors affect dissolution of solutes 1. Change of energy content or enthalpy of solution, H solution If H solution is exothermic (< 0) dissolution is favored. If H solution is endothermic (> 0) dissolution is not favored.
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Spontaneity of the Dissolution Process 2. Change in disorder, or randomness, of the solution S mixing If S mixing increases (> 0) dissolution is favored. If S mixing decreases (< 0) dissolution is not favored. Thus the best conditions for dissolution are: For the solution process to be exothermic . H solution < 0 For the solution to become more disordered . S mixing > 0
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Spontaneity of the Dissolution Process Disorder in mixing a solution is very common. S mixing is almost always > 0. What factors affect H solution ? There is a competition between several different attractions. Solute-solute attractions such as ion-ion attraction, dipole-dipole, etc. Breaking the solute-solute attraction requires an absorption of E.
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Spontaneity of the Dissolution Process Solvent-solvent attractions such as hydrogen bonding in water.
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