Final_Review - PHIL 101 December 2006 Review Questions Dec...

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PHIL 101 December 2006 Review Questions Dec 14 th 3:15 review These questions are meant to provide you with a guideline for studying for the final exam. The list is not exhaustive of the types of questions you will be asked and you will also not get exactly these questions on the exam. Nagel 1. What is moral luck? According to Nagel we can’t hold people responsible for things they have no control over. 2. What is the “control condition”? Held morally responsible for what we can control The condition on responsibility. For you to count as morally responsible for something, the condition is that your actions and the consequence must be are under your control. 3. How do consequences influence moral evaluation of actions? Consequences influence how we judge the things we do. Retroactive moral judgments. The same action can be judged two different ways depending on the result (consequence). He looks at the agent’s intentions 4. What is the paradox of moral luck? Luck or accident actually influences moral judgment and responsibility. The paradox is: Having really bad luck influences the judgment of your actions even though the “control condition” says other wise. The same actions can lead to very different moral judgments even though they are beyond you control. The control condition and judgment of responsibility. You are equally responsible for only what you do, but accidents that are out of your control influence moral judgment= paradox Control condition + judgments based on out come = paradox 5. What is the place of luck in Aristotle’s and Kant’s theories? Kant says that it is all determined by the agent….? And inside the will and agent. Kant is trying to make his theory waterproof by saying moral value of an action only has to do with the will. He says to know if something that is a right or wrong one has to have a set of laws for morally right. Aristotle our habits are sometimes enforced by bad luck such as bad role models or bad people, this its not about only surroundings, its debatable where it’s a bit of both, environment shapes you, but it doesn’t determine you completely. He doesn’t rule out luck but if your virtuous your not susceptible to luck. 6. Go through the main examples of Nagel’s article and make sure you can explain what they show. Aristotle - 1. What is Aristotle’s function argument? Book 1 chap 9 his underlying premise everything is made in such a way that it has a telos or certain goal, even in nature it has a function. A chair’s function is to let people sit. A trait of a good chair is that it doesn’t fall apart. He used the example of a guy who plays a flute his goal to play music but its not just
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doing what’s specific to playing just a flute its to doing it well. Human beings have a specific function the purpose of being a human being is to perform that action well. For humans its reason, or rationalizing. To
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Final_Review - PHIL 101 December 2006 Review Questions Dec...

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