Notes_AOS200A

Notes_AOS200A - Contents 1 Atmos& Ocean Thermodynamics 5...

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Unformatted text preview: Contents 1 Atmos & Ocean Thermodynamics 5 1.1 Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.1.1 Systems & States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.1.2 Thermodynamic Processes & Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . 10 1.1.3 Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.1.4 Equations of State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.2 The First Law and its Consequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.2.1 The Calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1.2.2 Some Consequences of the First Law . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1.3 The Second Law and its Consequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1.3.1 Carnot Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1.3.2 The Second Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 1.3.3 The Clausius Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 1.3.4 Entropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 1.3.5 Some Consequences of the Second Law . . . . . . . . . . 30 1.4 Phase Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 1.4.1 Clausius Clapeyron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 1.4.2 Condensate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 1.4.3 Moist Enthalpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 1.4.4 Equivalent Potential Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 2 Thermodynamic Processes, and Convection 45 2.1 Aerological Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 2.1.1 Pseudo-Adiabats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 2.1.2 Polytropic Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 2.1.3 Soundings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 2.2 Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 2.2.1 Saturation by isobaric mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 2.2.2 Buoyancy Reversal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 1 2 CONTENTS 2.2.3 Mixing Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 2.3 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 2.3.1 Moist convective instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 2.3.2 CAPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 2.3.3 Oceanic convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Preface These notes emerged from a graduate course which I used to teach at the Uni- versity of California Los Angeles. The course was ten weeks and tried to set the foundations for subsequent studies of convection and small scale processes in the atmosphere. In this version I try to capture some of the main ideas from these notes, augmented by material on ocean thermodynamics. My emphasis is on a the- oretical development of the subject matter. The phenomenology is developed in a parallel class Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences 200B. Sources for these notes and suggestions for further reading are provided in the section on “Further Reading” at the end of each Chapter....
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Notes_AOS200A - Contents 1 Atmos& Ocean Thermodynamics 5...

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