Exam 2 review

Exam 2 review - ATOC 1060 Fall 2007 Midterm 2 Study Guide...

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ATOC 1060 – Fall 2007 Midterm 2 Study Guide Overview of Part 2 of course (Oceans, Solid Earth, and the Carbon Cycle) As you study for this test, it will be helpful for you to read the material in the book that is associated with each of the figures that I showed in class. In addition, it will be helpful if you read the figure captions, and make sure that you understand the important points that are conveyed in the figures. Below is a summary of material that you should know. You will not be held responsible for the material that is highlighted in red . Material that was highlighted in class in blue . Ocean Atmosphere Coupling Winds and surface currents p 83-85- wind causes friction at the surface. the wind drags the ocean surface with it as it blows ( surface- ocean wind-drift currents). Wind stress is the force of the wind acting on the surface. The Corolisis Effect- water is deflected to the right of its path in northern hemisphere. Once the layer starts to move, the water is water is deflected to the right of the layer above. Currents complete large circular patters called gyres Convergence p 85-86- water is piled up in the middle of the gyre. Convergence results from the combined effects of wind driven surface ocean currents, earths rotation, and friction. The Corolisis effect causes the Ekman spiral; the deeper below the surface, the farther the layer is deflected to the right or left of the surface layer, producing a spiral. Upwelling and downwelling p 86-87- in areas of convergence surface water piles up. In Divergence it drops. Where convergence occurs the accumulation of water causes it to sink known as downwelling. Where divergence occurs water must rise from below to replace it known as upwelling . Geostrophic flow p 87- slopes caused by convergence and divergence cause a downslope force in the water due to gravity. Geotrophic current flows around the gyre (clockwise in northern hemisphere) Boundary currents p 87-88- the western part of the gyre is confined to a narrow path with a fast flowing current. The eastern boundary is more diffused; spread over a larger area with reduced current speeds. The eastern boundary currents tend to be divergent; Ekman transport is away from the continent, thinning the layer along the coast line. This promotes upwelling. Ocean circulation and sea-surface temperature p 88 and p 90- oceanic circulation is driven indirectly by temperature differences: the surface – ocean circulation is, in fact, driven by the circulation of the atmosphere. Thermohaline Circulation
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Circulation of the deep ocean- driven by atmospheric winds, the deep-ocean circulation is driven by differences in water density. Results from the temperature and salinity variations, which control the density of ocean waters. Salinity p 91-92-
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Exam 2 review - ATOC 1060 Fall 2007 Midterm 2 Study Guide...

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