diversitylabF07

diversitylabF07 - 1 Diversity of Life labs for organismal...

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Diversity of Life labs for organismal biology 1
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Table of Contents Intro How to be an Organism 4 Lab 1 Evolution 11 Lab 2 Microscopy, Prokaryotae, Protista 20 Lab 3 Primitive Invertebrates 33 Lab 4 Molluscs, Annelids 48 Lab 5 Nematodes and Arthropods 64 Lab 6 Echinoderms, Chordates 78 Lab 7 Fungi 95 Lab 8 105 Lab 9 122 Lab 10 Plant Structure 138 2
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Welcome to the Diversity of Life Laboratory This lab manual is designed to accompany the Diversity of Life Lecture (EBIO 101), and to focus your attention on the basic patterns that underly the diversity of living organisms. The lab manual should be supplemented by the Photographic Atlas, available in the campus bookstore. The full text of this manual is online at the EBIO 111 web page at: www.tulane.edu/~bfleury/diversity/diversity.html Be sure to visit the departmental web page at http://www.eebio.tulane.edu. Dr. Bruce E. Fleury 3
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How To Be An Organism Multicellularity introduces a new element into the natural order of things. The snake has entered the bacterial Garden of Eden. We can no longer live forever. But in exchange for leaving immortality behind, a vast array of evolutionary pathways opens up, different ways for multicellular organisms to live, in an ever-increasing number of different environments. Each of these new environments poses a different set of challenges, and only those organisms that can adapt to these changing conditions will survive to carry on the species. And all of the amazing diversity we see in nature, all of the millions of different ways to be a living thing, represent the many ways in which organisms have solved those basic environmental challenges. We are accustomed from birth to look at plants and animals as very different sorts of beings, that somehow animals are a different order of creation from plants. But if we look under the surface, if we think about what plants and animals really are, in the most basic and fundamental sense, we might find that we are more alike than we think. All multicellular organisms, whatever their environments, share a common set of evolutionary problems. And the differences we see between them are a result of the different evolutionary strategies they have used to solve those problems. All organisms face the same basic challenges: 1) Find and digest food 2) Find a mate and reproduce 3) Avoid being eaten while you are doing number 1 and number 2 4) Maintain a balance between the fluids in the body and the salts dissolved in them (osmotically stable environment) 5) Circulate nutrients from one part of the body to the other 6) Remove waste products generated by metabolism (especially nitrogen compounds) 4
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Evolutionary Challenges Plants and animals have adopted very different strategies to solve these problems. And different groups of animals have come up with some solutions that are truly
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This note was uploaded on 05/09/2008 for the course EBIO 101 taught by Professor Fleury during the Spring '08 term at Tulane.

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diversitylabF07 - 1 Diversity of Life labs for organismal...

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