APUSH C2 Outline - Chapter 2 Outline The Rise of the...

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6-24-15 Chapter 2 Outline: The Rise of the Atlantic World Kylie Stine African and European Backgrounds 15 and 16 cent. – W Europe, W Africa, N and S America all experiencing change Market societies, rulers, religion important Population doubled power shift new ideas innovation/change West Africa: Tradition and Change Sahara important o Trans-Saharan caravan trade grassland empires West Africa: gold—high demand in Europe Mali Empire dominated (14 th & early 15 th century) o Brass, copper, cloth, spices, manufactured goods, horses in exchange for slaves and gold Songhay Empire emerged—took place of Mali Senegambia (westernmost bulge)- many Islamic states Tsetse fly kept livestock herders out of Guinea; many small states still arose South- 4 major kingdoms; Kongo most powerful Rulers differed- some wanted to be godlike, others wanted to please people Felt obligated to family o Marriage = alliance between families; high mortality rate (diseases & famines) = wanted many children o Children considered mother’s family their ancestors = female power Farming important (both men and women) o Shifted location every few years to keep high soil quality o Yams, sugar cane, bananas, okra, cotton (rainforests) o Millet, sorghum, rice, cattle raising, fishing (grassland) Long distance trade: cowry shells as medium Religion o Life beyond death o Deities speak to priests, through dreams, through charms, “speaking shrines” o Explained bad things as witchcraft o Worshipped ancestors Ivory, cast iron, and wood sculptures o Used in religious ceremonies Dramatic ceremonies with masks, dance, and complex music Islam among merchants trading with N Africa and the Middle East o Some rulers modified Islam to appeal to popular opinion o 1400- Islam began to take hold European Culture and Society Renaissance (rebirth) o Rediscovering Greek/Roman ideas o Found ancient texts on: philosophy, science, medicine, geography, etc o Sought to relearn
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6-24-15 Chapter 2 Outline: The Rise of the Atlantic World Kylie Stine o Also much artistic creativity Da Vinci, Michelangelo Architecture o Social and spiritual stress sparked Conflicts between states, religions, classes Spanish Monarchy: King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella (1479) France focused on expanding England: Tudor Dynasty gradually overruled aristocracy 75% Europeans peasants (frequent revolts, poor conditions) o Worked together to farm & graze livestock o “Little Ice Age”- crops refuse to grow (4 centuries) Peasants moved to cities Immigration = rapid population growth o Unemployment rose Upper class expected to be respected by lower class Strict economic regulation o Compromised for profit Joint-stock company—accumulated capital through sells of stock o “Market economy” overthrew “just prices” Nuclear family: father as head, mother to bear children, children assist in labor—“little commonwealth” (family & economic unit) Religious Upheavals
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