f1 - Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Eukaryotic Gene Regulation...

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1 Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Ch11: pp 447-491 Ch12: pp 518-529 Eukaryotic Gene Regulation transcriptional level post-transcriptional level From Egg to Organism: How and Why Genes are Regulated • Together, these various types of human cells enable a person to function as a whole. Review What is a genome?
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2 The Generation of Different Cell Types • Four of the many different types of human cells… Figure 11.2 (a) Three muscle cells (partial) (b) A nerve cell (partial) (c) Sperm cells (d) Blood cells -Each has a unique cellular structure that appropriate for carrying out its function. Do they have different genes? …Do they all have the same genome? -Remember that every somatic cell in your body was produced by repeated rounds of mitosis that started with the zygote . What makes them different? Gene Regulation Cell Differentiation • The only way that cells with the same genetic information can develop into cells with different structures and function is if gene activity is regulated . Cell control mechanisms must determine what genes will be turned on and which will be turned off in a particular cell. - Cell differentiation …The process whereby cells become specialized in structure and function. Patterns of Gene Expression in Differentiated Cells What does it mean to say that genes are turned on or off? • A gene that is “turned on is being transcribed into RNA, and that message is being translated into a specific protein…This process is known as gene expression (genotype phenotype).
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3 Patterns of Gene Expression in Differentiated Cells • The difference between cells in an organism arises from the differential expression of genes. • During embryonic development, groups of cells follow diverging developmental pathways, and each group develops into a particular kind of tissue. -In adults, each cell type has a different pattern of “turned-on” genes • Shown: The patterns of gene expression in 3 different types of human cells. Different Types of Cells Express Different Combinations of Genes Figure 11.3 Pancreas cell Eye lens cell (in embryo) Nerve cell Glycolysis enzyme genes Crystallin gene Insulin gene Hemoglobin gene Key: Active gene Inactive gene House-keeping genes : they are active in all metabolizing cells. Which gene(s) are house-keeping genes? The specialized proteins (expressed in only particular types of cells): - cystallin : forms the lens of the eye - insulin : a hormone made in the pancreas - hemoglobi n: oxygen transport protein -Proteins specific to nerve cells are not shown. DNA Microarrays: Visualizing Gene Expression DNA mircroarray : a technique used to visualize the selective gene expression in particular cell types. • A DNA microarray is a glass slide that carries thousands of different kinds of single-stranded DNA fragments (ssDNA) arranged in an array (grid).
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