Psych 214 Exam Study guide - Psych 214 Exam Study Guide...

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Psych 214 Exam Study Guide Memory 6.1 Memory: a bestiary a. Integration of all memories over lifetime much of self 6.2 Memory is for interaction with the world a. “The basic claim is that an individual’s memory serves perception and action.” – Glenberg b. Interactions i. Memories of interaction with entire stimuli 1. Value of stimulus against another encounter reaction ii. Memories of interaction with structured environments 1. Navigation manipulation of landmarks iii. Memories of interaction with structured situations 1. Episodic memories give rise to concepts 2. Concepts statistical regularities to facilitate foresight, hierarchal iv. Memories of self 1. Recognition of own body in environment is for the powerful minded 2. Language-capable species results in autobiographical memory and maintenance of a narrative self v. Memories of interaction with other agents 1. To anticipate the behavior of predators, prey, mates, and other participants of a society (if any). 6.3 Simple memory for entire stimuli a. Simple memory coined by Marr, flash card for digital camera analogy. i. Signal recording and recall ii. Hippocampus thought responsible by Marr, records “bits”
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iii. In computing: SR latch b. Associative memory i. Relies on conditional probability ii. Involved with perceptual learning and language acquisition iii. Autoassociative recall retrieval of entire record given a key that directly relates to it. (Analogy: pig tail for pig) iv. Heteroassociative recall retrieval given a more indirect (possibly metaphoric) reference. (Analogy: I now pronounce you frog and ____) c. Attractor dynamics i. Feedback systems represented by energy surface (graph of inputs). 1. Analogy: ball rolling down hills into valleys 2. Tendency for steady states ii. Motor memory equilibrium steady state d. Memory for Sequences i. Transitioning through intermediate states to final state(s). ii. Analogy: ball rolling down hills into valleys (attractor). e. Learning and using the dynamics i. Specific recall can occur when starting from appropriate initial state. ii. Smooth spaces retention, slow to learn iii. Erratic space fast-learning, more prone to forget 1. Catastrophic forgetting massive displacement of old memories by new ones 6.4 Memory for structure in space and time: navigation and events a. Cognitive Maps i. Using associative memory, pairing navigational choices with local cues ii. Navigation Cues 1. Dead reckoning measuring off and integrating route information
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2. Landmarks a. Piloting landmark based nav iii. Place Cells neurons in hippocampus that fire due to familiar landmarks (rat in maze, certain neurons fire at particular region of maze) 1. Less than a map not bound by framework, not homogenous
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Psych 214 Exam Study guide - Psych 214 Exam Study Guide...

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