Study Guide Midterm 2 - Chapter 71 You should understand...

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Chapter 7 - 1. You should understand oxidation and reduction, and what role they play in cellular metabolism and photosynthesis. What are some of the key players in these types of reactions, and where do they go? Lose electrons in oxidation, gain electrons in reduction, oxidizing agent is reduced. Pyruvate oxidation yielding 2nadh + so it carries the energy. NADH oxidation and reduction, gives electrons to Oxygen. 2. What are the four steps in converting glucose to energy? What are the alternative pathways if oxygen is unavailable? Where does each of these reactions occur? (Fig. 7.2 as a general overview) Glycolysis- external to mitochondrion Pyruvate Oxidation- Matrix of mitochondrion Citric Acid Cycle- matrix of mitochondrion Electron Transport Chain- inner membrane of mitochondrion Fermentation- external to mitochondrion 3. What is the difference between oxidative and substrate-level phosphorylation? Substrate level uses enzymes to go from adp to atp, whereas oxidative uses e- transport chain. 4. What are the starting reactants and end products of glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, fermentation, the citric acid cycle, and cellular respiration? (Fig. 7.15 has some of this information) Glycolysis- glucose + 2 nad 2 pyruvate + 2 atp + 2 nadhh Pyruvate oxidation- 2 pyruvate + 2 nad + 2 coa 2 acetyl CoA +2 nadhh + co2 Fermentation- 2 pyruvate 2 lactic acid Citric acid cycle- oxaloacetate + acetyl coa 2 co2 + 6 nadhh + 2 fadh2 + 2 atp Cellular respiration- glucose + 6 o2 6co2 + 6h2o + 32 atp. 5. Make sure you understand Fig. 7.7, which are energy investing steps. Up until the production of the 2 glyceraldehyde 3 phosphates is when the energy investing reactions stop. This is so that the 2 nad’s can be converted into 2 nadhh, so it can store the energy. 6. What is the importance of phosphofructokinase, how does this affect glycolysis? Are there other inhibitors in other pathways responsible for producing ATP? (Fig 7.19) ADP or AMP activates phosphofructokinase, atp inhibits phosphofructokinase. Citrate inhibits phosphofructokinase, which activates the production of acetyl CoA. ATP or NADH inhibit citrate synthase. ADP or NAD activate isocitrade dehydrogenase, and ATP of NADH inhibit isocitrate dehydrogenase. 7. What regulates the citric acid cycle? What are the two alternative pathways for pyruvate? ATP and ADP help to regulate it so that enzymes stop functioning and don’t just keep doing citric acid cycle. Pyruvate can ferment into lactic acid or ethanol.
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8. What chemical properties of ubiquinone make it an important player in the electron transport chain? Is this similar, or different from plastoquinone in plants? Ubiquinone is completely nonpolar, therefore it can move freely. This is similar to Q. 9. What is the proton-motive force, how is it generated, and how is it integral to producing ATP? (Fig. 7.13) Where does the ATP go, and why is it important?
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