LS2Midterm review - 1 Life cannot come from nonlife all...

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1. Life cannot come from nonlife, all cells require energy, all life needs genetic material to translate and eventually produce proteins, and must give replicated cells the same genetic material. Cells are the smallest structural unit. Multiple cells can come together to form a functioning organism. Cells of all organisms are fundamentally similar, because of natural selection / evolution. 2. The central dogma to biology is evolution and natural selection. Small mutations lead to organisms that are different, and those better adapted survive at a better rate than those that do not have the positive mutation. The way that we go from DNA to proteins is that the DNA in the cell is unwound and a mRNA strand comes and makes a copy of the non-nonsense strand of DNA (transcription), which then goes into the RER and attaches to the ribosomes which make the proteins coded for in the mRNA (translation.) 3. Controlled experiments try to keep everything constant except one factor, and see if there is a difference. Comparative experiments look at two distinct unmanipulated populations and trying to find the variable that is different. Null hypothesis is important because it is the alternate that is considered apart from our hypothesis, so all experiments carry importance. It functions to prove or disprove the hypothesis. 4. Yeah 5. Stable isotopes are ones that do not emit radiation, whereas unstable ones shoot off neutrons. 6. Covalent bonds are when the atoms share electrons, as opposed to ionic bonds, where the molecule has a definite positive and negative side or atoms or components. Van der waals is covalent non polar, hydrogen bonding is covalent polar pretty much, and hydrophobic is when you mix unlike substances. 7. Water exerts osmotic pressure, is polar, has hydrogen bonding, dissociates its H+ atoms and rejoins them to form hydronium, ice floats, theres surface tension, etc…
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8. Acids are proton donator, bases are proton acceptor, buffers help to make is so that when there is a change in the concentration of protons, the cell can still remain at a stable pH so the cell can still do its normal functions. 9. Condensation combines two molecules to make a bigger molecule plus water, whereas hydrolysis uses water to break apart big molecules. 10. Hydroxyl -oh, Aldehyde =oh, Keto =o, Carboxyl -cooh, Amino -nh2, Phosphate -op32-, Sulfhydryl -sh. 11. 20 amino acids, [C, H3N+, coo-, H, R]=[carbon, amino, carboxyl, hydrogen, R], 5 polar charged, 5 polar uncharged, 7 nonpolar, 3 special cases.
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