DCN_3_Layer+2+and+MAC+address - Layer 2 and MAC...

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Layer 2 and MAC address (updated )
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Layers in the TCP/IP Protocol Suite
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TCP/IP Protocol Stack Application layer Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Provide application program network interfaces Establish terminal to terminal connection Addressing and route selecting Physical media access Binary data flow transmission Physical layer HTTP, Telnet, FTP TFTP, Ping TCP/UDP IP Ethernet, 802.3, PPP Interfaces, wires
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4 To be transmitted, data must be transformed to electromagnetic signals. Physical layer
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The physical layer is responsible for movements of individual bits from one hop (node) to the next. Note Physical layer
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The physical layer defines the means of transmitting raw bits rather than logical data packets over a physical link connecting network nodes. The bit stream may be grouped into code words or symbols and converted to a physical signal that is transmitted over a hardware transmission medium. The physical layer provides an electrical, mechanical, and procedural interface to the transmission medium . The shapes and properties of the electrical connectors, the frequencies to broadcast on, the modulation scheme to use and similar low-level parameters , are specified here. Physical Layer
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Limitations of Physical Layer Cannot organize streams of bits . Cannot name or identify computers. Cannot communicate with the upper-level layers. Cannot decide which computer will transmit binary data.
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Detail of Physical Layer …………………………………………………Later………
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Data link layer
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The data link layer is responsible for moving frames from one hop (node) to the next. Note
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Data Link Layer The main tasks of the data link layer are: Transfer data from the network layer of one machine to the network layer of another machine using hop by hop transmission over single links (single segments). Convert the raw bit stream of the physical layer into groups of bits (“ frames ) and vice versa Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer Datagram Frame Electrical and  Optical signals
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Functions of the Data Link Layer Relationship between packets and frames.
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Data Link Layer Provide service interface to the network layer Access control Resolve how multiple nodes share the same data channel Framing Layer 2 uses framing to organize or group the bits. Determines how the bits of the physical layer are grouped into frames (framing) . Physical addressing (MAC address) Layer 2 uses an addressing process to identify computers.
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Data Link Layer Flow control pacing between adjacent sending and receiving nodes Constrain sender from overwhelming receiver Regulating data flow Slow receivers not swamped by fast senders Error control Dealing with transmission errors Adding error detection/correction bits Detect error, correct error errors caused by signal attenuation, noise receiver detects presence of errors:
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