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Chapter 5 Outline


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THE BASIC MOTIVATIONAL PROCESS. A. Introduction. 1. Motivation represents the forces acted on or within a person that cause the person to behave in a specific, goal-directed manner. 2. One of management’s jobs is to channel employee motivation effectively toward achieving organizational goals. 3. Motivation and performance are not the same. 4. Experts agree that an organization must: a. Attract people to the organization and encourage them to remain with it b. Allow people to perform the tasks for which they were hired c. Stimulate people to go beyond routine performance and become creative and innovative in their work B. Core phases. 1. A key motivational principle states that performance is a function of a person’s level of ability. 2. Discussions of motivation generally are concerned with: a. What drives behavior b. What direction behavior takes c. How to maintain that behavior 3. Core phases of the motivational process are: a. Employee identifies needs b. Employee searches for ways to satisfy these needs c. Employee selects goal-directed behaviors d. Employee performs e. Employee receives either rewards or punishments f. Employee reassesses need deficiencies 4. Needs are deficiencies that a person experiences at a particular time. 5. Needs often act as energizers by creating tensions within the individual, who finds them uncomfortable and therefore is likely to make an effort to reduce or eliminate them. 6. A goal is a specific result that an individual wants to achieve. C. Motivational challenges. 1. Challenges in the motivational process are: a. Motives can only be inferred
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b. Centers on the dynamic nature of needs c. Involves the considerable differences in people’s motivations and in the energy with which people respond to them T MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES THROUGH MEETING HUMAN NEEDS. A. Needs Hierarchy Model. 1. Needs Hierarchy Model suggests that people have a complex set of exceptionally strong needs, that can be arranged in a hierarchy. 2. Basic assumptions of the Needs Hierarchy Model are: a. Once a need has been satisfied, its motivational role declines in importance. However, has one need is satisfied, another need gradually emerges to take its place, so people are always striving to satisfy some need. b. The needs network for most people is very complex, with several needs affecting behavior at any one time. Clearly, when someone faces an emergency, such as desperate thirst, that need dominates until it is gratified. c.
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