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Unformatted text preview: INTRODUCTION TO LEADERSHIP
A. Leadership and management. 1. Leadership is the process of developing ideas and a vision, living by values that support those ideas and that vision, influencing others to embrace them in their own behaviors, and making hard decisions about human and other resources.
2. A leader is a person who exhibits key attributes of leadership ideas, vision, values, influencing others, and making tough decisions. h POWER AND POLITICAL BEHAVIOR
A. Effective leadership depends on the acceptance of influence by the follower as on the leader's providing it.
B. Interpersonal sources of power. 1. Legitimate power is an individual's ability to influence others' behaviors because of the person's formal position in the organization.
a. The zone of indifference is an area within which employees will accept certain directives without questioning the leader's power.
2. Reward power is an individual's ability to influence others' behaviors by providing valued things.
3. Coercive power is an individual's ability to influence others' behaviors by punishing them.
a. Examples of forms of punishment include reprimands, undesirable work assignments, closer supervision, tighter enforcement of work rules, & suspension without pay.
b. Examples of the effects of punishment include refusing to perform task, falsifying performance reports, or being absent frequently.
4. Referent power is an individual's ability to influence others because he/she is respected, admired, or liked.
a. Sources of referent power include admired personality characteristics, charisma or a good reputation. (political leaders, movie stars, sports figures, well-known individuals, etc)
5. Expert power is an individual's ability to influence others' behaviors because of recognized competencies, talents, or specialized knowledge.
6. Which source(s) of power does an effective manager use? All sources. C. Use of political behavior. 1. Political behavior involves attempts by individuals to influence the behaviors of others and the course of events in the organization in order to protect their self-interests, meet their own needs, and advance their own goals. 2. Organizational politics involve actions by individuals, teams, or leaders to acquire, develop and use power and other resources in order to obtain preferred outcomes.
a. Benefits of organizational politics include career advancement, recognition and status for individuals looking after their legitimate interests, and achievement of organizational goals getting the job done.
b. Harmful effects of organizational politics include demotions and loss of jobs for "losers" in the political process, a misuse of resources, and creation of an ineffective organizational culture.
3. Leaders and employees are more likely to act politically when: a. Decision-making procedures and performance measures are uncertain and complex.
b. Competition for scarce resources is strong. 4. Political behavior is higher when leaders reward it. a. Political behavior in performance appraisals can: i. Undermine organizational goals and performance ii. Compromise the link between performance and rewards iii. Increase political behavior in other organizational processes and decisions.
iv. Expose the organization to litigation if employees are terminated.
b. Guidelines to help cope with the problems of political behavior in performance appraisals include:
i. ii. iii. iv. v. Develop goals and standards that are as clear and specific as possible. Link specific actions and performance results to rewards. Conduct structured, professional reviews, including specific examples of observed performance and explanations for ratings given. Offer performance feedback on an ongoing basis, rather than once a year. Acknowledge that appraisal politics exist and make this topic a focus of ongoing discussions throughout the organization. TRADITIONAL LEADERSHIP MODELS
A. Traits model of leadership. 1. Traits model of leadership is based on characteristics of many leaders both successful and unsuccessful and is used to predict leadership effectiveness.
2. Traits commonly shared by most successful leaders are: a. Intelligence b. Maturity & breadth c. Achievement drive d. Integrity 3. Limitations of the traits model are: a. In terms of personality traits, there are no consistent patterns between specific traits or sets of traits and leadership effectiveness. b. It often attempts to relate physical traits such as height, weight, appearance, physique, energy, and health to effective leadership. c. A relationship between specific traits and a person's interest in particular types of jobs could well exist, which a study relating personality and effectiveness might not identify.
B. Behavioral model of leadership. 1. Behavioral model of leadership focuses on what leaders actually do and how they do it.
2. Behavioral models suggest that effective leaders assist individuals and teams in achieving their goals by:
a. Build task-centered relations with employees that focus on the quality and quantity of work accomplished.
b. They are considerate and supportive of employee's attempts to achieve personal goals, and work hard at settling disputes, keeping people happy, providing encouragement, and giving positive reinforcement.
3. Ohio State University Leadership Studies. a. Dimensions of leader behavior. i. Consideration is the extent to which the leaser has relationships with subordinates that are characterized by mutual trust, two-way communication, respect for employees' ideas, and empathy for their feelings. prescribes the roles of subordinates in order to set and accomplish goals in their areas of responsibility. ii. Initiating structure is the extent to which a leader defies and b. Positive effects of consideration on productivity occur when: i. ii. iii. iv. v. The task is routine and denies employees little, if any, satisfactions from the work itself. Followers are predisposed toward participative leadership. Team members must learn something new. Employees feel that their involvement in the decision-making process is legitimate and affects their job performance. Employees feel that strong status differences should not exist between them and their leader. c. Positive effects of initiating structure on productivity occur when: i. ii. iii. iv. v. A high degree of pressure for output is imposed by someone other than the leader. The task satisfies employees. Employees depend on the leader for information and direction on how to complete the task. Employees are psychologically predisposed toward being instructed in what to do and how to do it. More than 12 employees report to the leader. d. Leaders who rank high on initiating structure and low on consideration generally have large numbers of:
i. Grievances ii. Absenteeism iii. Employee turnover rates e. The main limitation of the behavioral model was the lack of attention it gave to the effects of the situation. SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP MODEL
A. The situational leadership model states that the style of leadership should be matched to the level of readiness of the followers.
1. Task behavior includes using one-way communication, spelling out duties, and telling followers what to do and where, when, and how to do it.
2. Relationship behavior includes using two-way communication, listening, encouraging, and involving followers in decision-making, and giving emotional support.
3. Readiness is a follower's ability to set high but attainable task-related goals and a willingness to accept responsibility for reaching them.
B. Leader styles. 1. A telling style provides clear instructions, gives specific directions, and supervises work closely.
2. A selling style provides direction, encourages two-way communication, and helps build confidence and motivation on the part of the follower.
3. A participating style requires followers to share ideas and facilitates the work by being encouraging and helpful to subordinates.
4. A delegating style, the leader turns over responsibility for making and implementing decisions to followers.
C. The situational leadership model requires the leader to be constantly monitoring the readiness level of followers in order to determine the combination of task and relationship behaviors that is most appropriate. 1. The situational leadership model assumes managers can accurately assess each situation and change their leadership styles to match different situations. VROOM-JAGO LEADERSHIP MODEL
A. Introduction. 1. The Vroom-Jago time-driven leadership model prescribes a leader's choice(s) among five leadership styles based on seven situational factors, recognizing the time requirements and costs associated with each style.
B. Leadership styles in the model. 1. Leadership styles include: a. b. c. d. e. Decide style Consult individually style Consult team style Facilitate style Delegate style C. Situational variables in the model. 1. Situational variables are: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Decision significance Importance of commitment Leader expertise Likelihood of commitment Team support Team expertise Team competence D. The decision-time penalty is the negative result of decisions not being made when needed.
E. The criteria by which the trade-offs among a leader's decision-making style can by evaluated are:
1. 2. 3. 4. Decision quality Employee commitment to implementation Costs Employee development F. Limitations of the model. 1. Limitations of the model include: i. Subordinates may have a strong desire to participate in decisions affecting their jobs, regardless of the model's recommendation of a style for the leader to use. effectiveness of the model. ii. Certain competencies of the leader play a key role in determining the relative iii. The model is based on the assumption that decisions involve a single process. ...
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- Spring '08