Chapter 11 Outline

Chapter 11 Outline - INTRODUCTION A Conflict refers to a...

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INTRODUCTION A. Conflict refers to a process in which one party (person or group) perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party. B. Conflict management consists of diagnostic processes, interpersonal styles, and negotiation strategies that are designed to avoid unnecessary conflict and reduce or resolve excessive conflict. C. The balanced approach regarding conflict recognizes that conflict occurs in organizations whenever interests collide. LEVELS OF CONFLICT A. Intrapersonal conflict. 1. Intrapersonal conflict occurs within an individual and usually involves some form of goal, cognitive, or affective conflict. 2. Basic types of intrapersonal conflict are: a. Approach-approach conflict b. Avoidance-avoidance conflict c. Approach-avoidance conflict 3. Approach-approach conflict means that an individual must choose between two or more alternatives, each of which is expected to have a positive outcome. 4. Avoidance-avoidance conflict means that an individual must choose between two or more alternatives, each of which is expected to have a negative outcome. 5. Approach-avoidance conflict means that an individual must decide whether to do something that is expected to have both positive and negative outcomes. 6. The intensity of intrapersonal conflict generally increases when: a. Several realistic alternative courses of action are available for handling the conflict b. The positive and negative consequences of the alternative courses of action are roughly equal c. The source of conflict is important to the individual B. Interpersonal conflict. 1. Interpersonal conflict occurs when two or more individuals perceive that their attitudes, behaviors, or preferred goals are in opposition. 2. A role is the group of tasks and behaviors that others expect a person to perform while doing a job. 3. Role conflict occurs when a focal person responds with behaviors that serve as inputs to the role sender’s process. a. Four types of role conflict are:
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i. Intra-sender role conflict ii. Inter-sender role conflict iii. Inter-role conflict iv. Person-role conflict 4. Role ambiguity is the uncertainty and lack of clarity surrounding expectations about a single role. a. Coping behaviors include: i. Initiating aggressive action and hostile communication ii. Withdrawing iii. Approaching the role sender or senders to attempt joint problem solving. C. Intragroup conflict.
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