Chapter 12 Outline


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Unformatted text preview: INTRODUCTION TO INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION A. Introduction. 1. Interpersonal communication involves a limited number of participants 2. The participants are: a. Are usually in proximity to each other b. Use many sensory channels c. Are able to provide immediate feedback k ELEMENTS OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION A. For accurate interpersonal communication to take place the thoughts, facts, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings that the sender intended to send must be the same as those understood and interpreted by the receiver. B. Senders and Receivers. 1. The roles of sender and receiver change depending upon where the individuals are in the process. C. Transmitters and Receptors. 1. Transmitters are used by the sender 2. Receptors are used by the receiver D. Messages and Channels. 1. Messages include the transmitted data and the coded symbols that give particular meaning to the data 2. Channels are the means by which message travel from sender to receiver. 3. Media richness is the capacity of a communication approach to transmit cues and provide feedback 4. A cue is a stimulus, either consciously or unconsciously perceived, that results in a response by the receiver 5. Data are the output of the communication E. Meaning and Feedback. 1. Meaning represents a person's thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and attitudes. 2. Encoding gives personal meaning to messages that are to be sent. 3. Decoding gives personal, interpreted meaning to the messages that are received. 4. Feedback is the receiver's response to the message. F. Interpersonal Barriers. 1. Personality traits that serve as barriers include: a. Low adjustment b. c. d. e. a. b. c. d. e. Low sociability Low conscientiousness Low agreeableness Low intellectual openness Perceptual defense Stereotyping Halo effect Projection High expectancy effect 2. Perceptual errors that serve as barriers include: 3. Noise represents any interference with the intended message in the channel. 4. Semantics is the special meaning assigned to words. 5. Language routines are a person's verbal and nonverbal communication patterns that have become habits. 6. Lying means the sender states what is believed to be false in order to seriously mislead one or more receivers. 7. Distortion represents a wide range of messages that a sender may use between the extremes of lying and complete honesty. 8. Impression management is the process by which a sender knowingly attempts to influence the perceptions that the receivers form a. Ingratiation involves using flattery, supporting others' opinions, doing favors, laughing excessively at others' jokes and so on. b. Self-promotion involves describing the sender's personal attributes to others in a highly positive and exaggerated way. c. Face-saving involves using various tactics, such as apologizing, making excuses to others, or presenting justification to others. G. Cultural Barriers. 1. Culture refers to the distinctive wat in which different populations, societies, or smaller groups organize their lives or activities. 2. Intercultural communication occurs whenever a message sent by a member of one culture is received and understood by a member of another culture. 3. Cultural context is the conditions that surround and influence the life of an individual, group, or organization. 4. Interpersonal communication in a high-context culture is characterized by: a. The establishment of social trust before engaging in work-related discussions b. The high value placed on personal relationships and goodwill c. The importance of the surrounding circumstances during an interaction 5. Interpersonal communication in a low-context culture is characterized by: a. Directly and immediately addressing the tasks, issues, or problems at hand b. The high value placed on personal expertise and performance c. The importance of clear, precise, and speedy interactions 6. Ethnocentrism occurs when individuals believe that only their culture makes sense, has the "right" values, and represents the "right" and logical way to behave. FOSTERING ETHICAL INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS. A. Introduction. 1. Dialogue is a. Dialogue includes: i. ii. iii. iv. 2. Assertive communication means B. Communication Openness. 1. Communication openness may be viewed as a continuum ranging from ___________ to _________. 2. Meta-communication brings out 3. Meta-communication focuses on: a. b. c. d. 4. The purpose of communication is C. Constructive Feedback. 1. Principles of constructive feedback are: a. b. c. d. e. f. 2. 360-degree feedback is D. Appropriate Self-disclosure. 1. Self-disclosure is E. Active Listening. 1. Listening is 2. ________% of an eight-hour day is spent listening. 3. Listening comprehension is at only ________% efficiency. 4. Guidelines for increasing listening skills are: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. l NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION. A. Introduction. 1. Nonverbal communication includes B. Types of Nonverbal Cues. 1. Basic types of personal nonverbal cues are: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 2. Feng shui is 3. Recommendation for office design based on feng shui include: a. b. c. d. 4. Verbal and nonverbal cues can be related by: a. b. c. d. C. Cultural Differences. 1. Chromatics is 2. Chronemics reflect 3. Monchronic time schedule means 4. Polychronic time schedule means D. Status Differences. 1. Nonverbal cues and organizational status can be related by: a. b. c. 2. Successful managers may use the following supportive nonverbal cues when meeting with subordinates: a. b. c. d. e. @ INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. A. Introduction. 1. An interpersonal communication network is B. Individual Networks. 1. Vertical networks include 2. Lateral networks include 3. External networks include 4. Political skill is C. Informal Group Network. 1. An informal group network involves 2. The grapevine is 3. Four major ways messages move in organizations via the grapevine: a. b. c. d. 4. Low communication openness is characterized by: a. b. c. d. D. Formal employee network. 1. Formal employee network means E. Organizational use. 1. Networks are important for day-to-day organizational communication for the following reasons: ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/10/2008 for the course BUS 341 taught by Professor St.lawerence during the Spring '08 term at Rhode Island.

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