Learn different methods of distributing electron in an atom
Know how to write the electrons configuration of atoms and ions
Learn to identify type of orbitals where electrons are located
Based on the previous models it was found that electrons are located in different energy levels. But how are they distributed? There
are some basic rules to follow:
states that electrons are added up from the lowest energy level towards higher energy level.
Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity
states that when facing orbitals of same energy level (
fill them singly first aligned in the same direction (
) before pairing up with
Pauli’s Exclusion Princi
states that an orbital can only be occupied by
two electrons with opposite spin
As we move away from the nucleus into higher energy levels more orbitals are available for filling up. So far the elements in the
periodic table use four types of orbitals identified by the letters:
s, p, d, and f
Electrons are identified by their spin represented as a single arrow facing up or down,
when placed in an orbital.
The diagram continues as shown:
Use the periodic table to predict electronic configuration.