Final Answer Key - PSYCH 321 Answer Key 1 Research by Ayduk...

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Unformatted text preview: PSYCH 321 Answer Key: ! 1. Research by Ayduk et al. demonstrates the importance of A) goals. B) schemas. C) attentional focus. D) expectations. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): C ! 2. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggest that awareness of ______ is important to development. A) one's life span B) one's social group C) one's nation of origin D) one's parental influences Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 3. Research by Ayduk et al. demonstrates that people can control their emotions regarding interpersonal relationships by focusing on A) hot aspects of the past experience. B) cool aspects of the past experience. C) their level of rejection sensitivity. D) their internal feelings of anger. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): B ! 4. A key feature of research by Downey and Feldman is that rejection sensitivity A) predicted outcomes after controlling for other personality variables. B) did not predict outcomes after controlling for other personality variables. C) did not predict outcomes at all. D) was unrelated to other personality variables. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 5. Work by Downey and Feldman documents the impact of rejection sensitivity on A) academic performance. B) neuroticism. C) relationship outcomes. D) schizophrenia. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): C ! 6. Research on personality development shows that the effects of impulsivity A) are basically good. B) are bad no matter where you live. C) are worse if you live in high SES neighborhoods. D) are worse if you live in low SES neighborhoods. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): D ! 7. Research by Elder et al. on ill-temperedness stresses the importance of A) evolution. B) television influences on personality. C) early-childhood conflicts. D) sociohistorical context. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): D ! 8. Research based on the KAPA model of personality architecture is strongly A) nomothetic. B) idiographic. C) physiological. D) evolutionary. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 9. In recent years, personality psychologists have focused on personality factors in A) laboratory settings. B) stimulus-response situations. C) psychoanalytic encounters. D) close relationships. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! ! 10. Baltes' analysis of selection processes has been applied mainly to issues of personality and A) marketing. B) older adult development. C) child development. D) memory. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): B 11. Andersen's research on transference is based on a(n) ___________ strategy. A) case study B) experimental C) correlational D) none of the above Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): B ! 12. In Eastern cultures, people experience greater intrinsic motivation when tasks A) are chosen by an authority figure. B) are chosen by oneself. C) are not very challenging. D) are performed on a salary basis. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 13. The text suggests that issues of culture A) of only small important to the study of personality. B) are of central importance to the study of personality. C) can be studied adequately by importing US research methods to other cultures. D) none of the above. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): B ! 14. Research based on the KAPA model of personality architecture demonstrates that A) personality is not consistent across situations. B) personality is consistent in the manner trait theory had anticipated. C) personality consistency is driven by mood states. D) social-cognitive analyses can illuminate questions of cross-situational consistency. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): D ! 15. Research by Caspi et al. shows that socioeconomic status A) is genetically determined. B) influences personality outcomes. C) is socially determined. D) does not influence personality outcomes. E) c and d. Points Earned: 0.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): B ! 16. It has been found that, among defensive pessimists A) expectations for GPA strongly predict actual GPA. B) academic self-discrepancies negatively influence performance. C) negativity of plans negatively predict performance. D) all of the above. E) none of the above. Points Earned: 0.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): E ! 17. To disentangle cause and effect in the study of real-life personality development, it is necessary to engage in __________ research. A) correlational B) experimental C) case study D) longitudinal Points Earned: 0.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): D ! 18. The quote from Clifford Geertz suggests that A) personality influences culture. B) culture influences personality. C) culture is unimportant to personality. D) there is no such thing as human nature without culture. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): D ! 19. Work by Caspi, Lynam, Elder, et al. on personality development shows that personality outcomes A) are genetically determined. B) reflect social influenced. C) reflect interactions between personality and social setting. D) are unpredictable. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): C ! 20. Having feelings towards someone that are based on experiences from someone else in your past is called A) transference B) rejection sensitivity C) self-verification D) self-enhancement Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 21. Research on day-to-day interactions by Gable, Reis, and Downey finds that A) the only important factor in interpersonal relationships is physical attraction. B) inaccurate interpretations of a relationships partner influence the quality of relationships. C) people are basically accurate in their perceptions of relationship partners. D) personality has surprisingly little impact on interpersonal relationships. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): B ! 22. Rejection sensitivity is A) not a personality variables. B) a global, decontextualized personality variable. C) a contextualized personality variable. D) none of the above. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): C ! 23. People who employ selection and optimization strategies A) become confused from all the psychological work involved. B) are more depressed. C) subsequently become more depressed. D) experience greater well-being. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): D ! 24. The idea that personality and culture are mutually constitutive means that A) personality influences culture. B) culture influences personality. C) personality and culture make each other up. D) personality and culture are independent forces. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): C ! 25. Research on the priming of cultural concepts by Hong et al. suggests that culture can be understood within a ______________ framework. A) social-cognitive B) psychoanalytic C) trait theory D) none of the above Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 1. In Higgins' research, ought and ideal standards were A) primed. B) traits. C) self-guided. D) self-efficacious. Points Earned: 0.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 2. People generally possess ___________ self-schema. A) one B) three C) no (i.e., none) D) many Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): D ! 3. __________ are knowledge structures that guide and organize information processing A) schemas B) performance goals C) learning goals D) self-efficacy perceptions Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 4. Lazarus' concept of secondary appraisal is similar to A) Freud's superego. B) Bandura's self-efficacy concept. C) Rogers' self-actualization motive. D) Beck's cognitive triad. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): B ! 5. Research by Swann indicates that _________ strongly prefer positive feedback about the self. A) all people B) depressed people C) people with positive self-views D) people with negative self-views Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): C ! 6. According to Markus, having relevant self-schemata A) makes the judgment of relevant adjectives more difficult. B) leads one to be more narcissistic. C) means that one will resist certain types of information. D) means that one can judge the relevance of all adjectives rapidly. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): C ! 7. Bandura's approach to therapy emphasizes A) mastery experiences. B) conditioning processes. C) rational discussion. D) cognitive restructuring. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 8. Work by the psychologist Tory Higgins on self-concept, self-discrepancies, and emotion indicates that people tend to feel ______ when they experience a discrepancy between the _______________. A) anxious; actual and ought self B) depressed; actual and ought self C) anxious; actual and ideal self D) depressed; ideal and ought self Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 9. Schemas tend to change A) very quickly. B) very slowly, if at all. C) never. D) whenever people become aware of them. Points Earned: 0.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): B ! ! 10. Which of the following is a coping mechanism described by Lazarus? A) problem-focused coping. B) emotion-focused coping. C) both (a) and (b). D) neither (a) nor (b). Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): C 11. In Markus' self-schema measure, a person is said to be schematic with regard to a personality attribute if they A) give a very high or low rating on the attribute. B) are unaware that the attribute is important to them. C) have increased brain activity in the Amygdala on an fMRI. D) draw that personality component into a self-schematic measure. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 12. The cognitive triad involves views concerning A) self, world, and future. B) communists, criminals, and conglomerates. C) development, pathology, and change. D) I should, I ought, and I must. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 13. A ______ method is one that measures the duration required for someone to give a response. A) projective B) peer report C) reaction-time D) all of the above Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): C ! 14. Self-guides are similar to Bandura's A) self-efficacy beliefs. B) cognitive competencies. C) standards. D) all of the above. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): C ! ! 15. A self-guide involving duties or obligations in the A) efficacious self. B) ought self. C) ideal self. D) learning goal self. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): B 16. In Dweck's research, beliefs that we cannot state in words are called A) implicit theories. B) submerged theories. C) explicit theories. D) repressed theories. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 17. Self schemas are A) derived from past experience. B) guides for the processing of information. C) generalizations concerning the self. D) all of the above. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): D ! 18. Various attributions may have different motivational consequences. Attributing course performance to fixed intelligence would lead one to A) feel less motivated after poor performance. B) feel more motivated after poor performance. C) be in conflict about future performance expectations. D) Such an attribution would not affect subsequent motivation. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 19. Research on sexual self-schema suggests that women with high scores A) are more sexually active. B) experience less sexual pleasure. C) both a and b. D) neither a nor b. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 20. Bandura's research on phobias employed _______ measures of phobic behavior A) self-report B) peer report C) behavioral D) none Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): C ! 21. The contemporary ideas of schemas is found in the philosophical writings of the German philosopher A) Kant. B) Hume. C) Voltaire. D) Sartre. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 22. In research on changes in phobia behavior, self-efficacy perceptions show __________ correlation with actual behavior A) a strong negative B) a strong positive C) an inconsistent D) no Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): B ! 23. The best way of increasing self-efficacy is by A) talking to a therapist. B) convincing oneself. C) thinking of past successes. D) mastery experiences. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): D ! 24. According to research, people who have _____________beliefs concerning emotion should be better at regulating emotions than those with ___________beliefs, because they tend to be more likely to experience social support. A) entity; incremental B) self-efficacy; incremental C) incremental; entity D) self-efficacy; entity Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 25. Mental structures that allow us quickly to interpret complex stimuli are called A) standards. B) goals. C) schemas. D) expectancies. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): C ! 1. The text notes that Bandura has criticized theories of learning that place complete reliance on the concept of reinforcement for the following reason(s) A) They fail to account for complex behaviors that are immediately learned in their entirety. B) They fail to account for behaviors learned in the absence of rewards to the model or to the observer. C) They fail to account for the first appearance of behaviors weeks after they have been learned. D) All of the above are reasons. Points Earned: 0.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): D ! ! 2. In research conducted by Bandura and Cervone, on factors that increase motivation, results indicated that motivation is most strongly enhanced when people A) are working toward specific goals, but do not receive any feedback on their performance, since the feedback can distract them from performing at their best. B) receive feedback on their performance but do not receive any specific goals to work toward, since goals can distract people from performing at their best. C) do not receive either goals or feedback on their performance. D) none of the above. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): D 3. Social cognitive personality theorists are critical of approaches that emphasize A) unconscious forces. B) traits. C) drives. D) all of the above. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): D ! 4. Research by Bandura and Cervone indicates the goals and feedback affect behavior by influencing A) observational learning. B) self-efficacy perceptions. C) self-evaluative reactions. D) b and c. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): D ! 5. Behavioral signatures consist of A) aggregates across situations. B) profiles of situation-behavior relationships. C) generalized expectancies. D) none of the above. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): B ! 6. In social cognitive theory, one of the ways in which self-regulation is achieved is A) through the use of external rewards. B) through the use of external cues. C) through the use of internal standards and self-evaluation. D) through the use of internal cues. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): C ! 7. Social cognitive theorists are critical of earlier learning theories because of their A) neglect of cognitive variables. B) emphasis on rewards. C) both (a) and (b). D) neither (a) nor (b). Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 8. A ___________ is a criterion for judging the goodness or worth of a person or thing. A) performance goal B) learning goal C) self-efficacy perception D) evaluative standard Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): D ! 9. A central idea of the CAPS model is that A) variability in behavior is an important aspect of personality. B) the key determinant of behavior is self-efficacy. C) most behavior is acquired through modeling or observational learning. D) people's trait are stable across different situations. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 10. Expectations generally A) are inherited. B) vary from situation to situation. C) cannot be stated in words. D) are consistent from situation to situation. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): B ! 11. According to social cognitive theory, goal-directed behavior can be explained in terms of A) performance standards. B) feedback information. C) both (a) and (b). D) neither (a) nor (b). Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): C ! 12. The major difference between social cognitive theory and other learning approaches (e.g., Skinner) is that social learning theory A) emphasizes developmental principles. B) emphasizes learning in the absence of reinforcement. C) emphasizes imitative behavior. D) minimizes the role of reinforcement in performance. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): B ! 13. Bandura's view of motivation involves A) goals. B) performance feedback. C) both (a) and (b). D) neither (a) nor (b). Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): C ! 14. Experiments (outlined in the text) which show that a subject can develop a conditioned response through the observation of another person (model) being conditioned are taken as evidence of A) vicarious conditioning. B) negative modeling. C) reverse modeling. D) identification with the conditioner. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 15. The fact that children learn so many behaviors through television can probably best be explained by A) Skinnerian operant conditioning. B) Freudian psychoanalytic theory. C) Pavlovian classical conditioning. D) Bandura's observational learning. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): D ! 16. A feature that differentiates social cognitive theory from behaviorism is the two theories' different views of A) the importance of experimentation. B) the importance of experiences in the social environment. C) personality trait variables. D) expectancies. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): D ! 17. Research reveals that playing violent video games A) increase people's aggression. B) lower people's aggression. C) has no influence on people's aggression. D) lower people's verbal skills. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 18. The text notes that a defining characteristic of persons involves persons' A) language and reasoning abilities. B) capacity for self-reflection. C) capacity to think about the future. D) all of the above. E) none of the above. Points Earned: 0.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): D ! 19. The text notes that social cognitive theory is most similar to A) behaviorism. B) trait theory. C) phenomenological theory. D) personal construct theory. E) c and d. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): E ! 20. Bandura's microanalytic research strategy emphasizes A) computer generated profiles. B) if-then behavior profiles. C) situation-specific measures. D) the use of strategic expectancies. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): C ! 21. Like Kelly's personal construct theory, social cognitive theorists believe that much human thought and action is A) future-oriented. B) influenced by submerged constructs. C) determined by childhood events. D) determined by environmental rewards. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 22. Casey et al.'s (2011) research linking the ability to delay gratification in childhood to brain activity during adulthood revealed that relative to those high in the ability, those low in the ability had: A) greater activation in the frontal lobes and in the striatum B) greater activation in the frontal lobes and lower activation in the striatum C) lower activation in the frontal lobes and in the striatum D) lower activation in the frontal lobes and greater activation in the striatum Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): B ! 23. People's goals generally A) are organized in a hierarchical system. B) do not change over periods of time. C) cannot be stated in words. D) are unconscious. E) c and d. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 24. According to social cognitive theory, effortful performance is most enhanced when A) goals and feedback are present. B) a relaxed atmosphere prevails. C) incentives are high. D) all of the above. Points Earned: 1.0/1 .0 Correct Answer(s): A ! 25. Which of the following items could appear on a scale measuring moral disengagement? A) “Cheating on an exam is justified when individuals don't have the time to study because of f...
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