Exam Two Study Guide

Exam Two Study Guide - Chapter 6 The First Bipeds Life in...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6 The First Bipeds Life in Africa 2 mya Reduction of woodlands and an increase of grasslands Diet of course, gritty fibrous vegetation Drier and colder climateclimate The Genus Australopithecus sourthern ape Dates from 4-1 mya Only found in Africa The characteristics: Bipedalism Foramen Magnum moves forward through time Pelvis shorter & broader than ape Angle of femur Lower vertebrae is curved Males 5 and females 3.5 Small Brain Avg size is 440 cubic cm 1/3 the size of modern humans Dental Characteristics Diastema opening/space for canines to lock together Skull Large Cheekbones Two types: gracile and robust The species: Anamensis 3.5 mya Found my Meave & Louise Leakey in Southern Africa Lake Turkana in Kenya in 1995 Ape Man of the Lake Ape like jaws Dated to 4 mya Afarensis Found by Don Johanson in Afar Triangle in Ethiopia 33 tall Bipedal Teeth showed the diastema Mary Leaky finds footprints of Afarensis in Laetoli, Tanzana Two or three adults walking upright on newly fallen volcanic ash Can be dated b/c its volcanic rock to 3.9 mya Lucys Baby / Dikiki Baby Homonoid Characteristics: Elongated face Shoulders suited for climbing Hominin Feet opposable toe K selected Africanus The Taung Child Skull of 6 yo boy Widest part of skull is back of head Drastic Climate Change 2.3 mya woodlands were decreased to grasslands Forced t eat coarse gritty fibrous vegetation Become hotter and drier Robust Characteristics Body size is similar to Gacile in that they are 5 tall and 70-100 lbs Differ with massive facial structure: Sagital Crest provides room on small brain case for the attachment of huge temoral muscles that are required to operate powerful jaws. Molars are larger (4x the size of modern humans) Large jaws and molars are need for the course food left over from climate change Aethiopicus Fossil Black Skull soaked in environment that made that made it absorb the minerals turning it black Sadgidal crest large bone on top of skull (Mohawk like) Arises on top of head because of the Temporal muscle The huge bone structure is to hold the large muscles that help to chew the food Masseter muscle in cheek causes large cheek bones Huge cheek bones and brow bones Found in Ethiopia Boisei Sadgidal crest, large cheek bones, large brow bones, smaller than aethiopicus Would be the runner up in a beauty pagent Large molars eating hard fiberous types of food Robustus Sadgidal crest, large cheek bones, large brow bones, Found in south aftrica Two new discoveries Sahelanthropus tchadenisis Discovered in Chad in 2002 Nick name Toumai meaning hope of life Dates to 7 mya close to when the hominin line split from hominoid line...
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Exam Two Study Guide - Chapter 6 The First Bipeds Life in...

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