Exam Three Study Guide anthro

Exam Three Study Guide anthro - Chapter Ten Lattitude of...

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Chapter Ten Lattitude of Domestication is very similar. First major domesticates: o Old World Wheat 10,000 BP o New World Maize 7000 BP Why Farming? o V. Gordon Childe “Oasis Hypothesis” Early Holocene aridity (got dry) Peolple, animals, and plants congretated around permanent water sources (oasis) People became knowledgeable about wild species in close proximity Humans slowly domesticated them for their needs o Robert Braidwood “Hilly Flanks Hypothesis” Area in Southern Iran known as Zagros Mtns are where grans where first domesticated o Lewis Benford “Pop Pressure Hypo” Forages live in ecological equilibrium with the environment Human populations rose faster than available resources In order to maintain their lifestyle: Modify environment with technology – irrigation Expand territory Southwest Asia – Fertile Crescent after Ice Age
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o Diverse Flora Nuts harvested in fall Wild cereals harvested in spring Migrating heards of gazelle o Favorable Hunter Gatherers – Permanent settlement before agriculture Pit Houses Storage Pits Burials under house floor o Long distance trade – obsidian from Anatolla o Cultivation of wild cereals Flint bladed sickles for harvesting Mortars and griding stones for grinding Storage pits – for food surpls o Hunting Gazelles, deer, wild cattle Life is Good! Things changed to the Younger Dryas 1300 – 11000 BP o Abrupt change to cooler, drier conditions o Shrinking areas of wild cereal grasses & nut producing o Response: Build animal drives (kites) to capture gazelles Exploit wild cereal grasses Build more storage facilities Become Farmers! Farming – the domestication of plants and animals
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o Domestication – evolutionary process where humans modify genetic makeup of a pop. Of plants or animals. Those domesticated are dependent on humans for reproduction o Plant domestication in SW Asia Wild wheat and barley 2 – 4 day harvest window before seeds dislodge naturally Rachis are brittle and weak Plants naturally reseed themselves o Natufians favored: Wild varieties with tough Rachis Seeds not lost in harvest and transport Seeds saved for next season Uproot entire plants with tough rachis Replant tough rachis plants in selected areas o Animal Domestication Wild goats and sheep Gregarious social animals Follow heards or leaders Hunters feed off same herd for a long time Become familiar with the animals and their habits Begin to control mvmts of leaders Mutual dependence developed By 10,000 BP wild goats / sheep were domesticated Zooarcheological Evidence: Domesticated animals are smaller in stature Horn core is different – not needed
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Exam Three Study Guide anthro - Chapter Ten Lattitude of...

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