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European Renaissance and Reformation - European Renaissance...

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European Renaissance and Reformation Transition and Birth of the Modern Renaissance (14 th -17 th century) A. Dark Ages vs. Renaissance? (12 th or 15 th century?) in the 12 th century, there were old classic writings in northern Europe. People say that the Renaissance started during the 14 th -15 th century in Italy. Pagan or Christian? Some Renaissance humanists were pagans because they believed in the greek writings rather than the church and a couple were atheists. But most were Christian and would write from a Christian perspective. B. Early Italian Renaissance a. Tecento- 13 th century in Italy. the plague appeared for the first time in the 1300’s, killing close to half of the population. Peasant revolts, the roman church appears to be falling apart because of Babylonian cactivity. People believe that god is striking out against Europe. b. Quattrecento- 14 th century. Church recovering, plague appearing but not as much of a problem. c. Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374)- argued as one of the first humanists. Argued there are demonstrable differences from people from the past and today. Ex. He looks at ancient writings and sees that the ideas it contains are different from the ideas that are presented of those ancient times by society today. Tries not to be anachronistic about the writings d. Lorenzo Valla (1407-1457)- understands that language changes over time. C. 2 important ideas of the Italian Renaissance a. historical discontinuity b. linguistic discontinuity D. Intellectual Birth of the Modern a. William of Ockham- significant works on logic, physics, and theology. Major figure of medieval thought. i. Occam’s razor- any phenomenon should make as few assumptions as possible, eliminating those that make no difference in the observable predictions of the explanatory hypothesis or theory. When multiple competing theories are equal in other respects, the principle recommends selecting the theory that introduces the fewest assumptions and postulates the fewest entities. b. Humanism- cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in ancient Greek and Roman thought. The dignity and worth of all people is based on the ability to determine right and wrong my appeal to universal human qualities. Particularly rationality. Important Rulers- Hapsbug Dynasty close to attaining power of all of Europe. A. King Henry VIII- England. B. Wife Evelyn C. Francis I- king of france 1515-1547 D. Charles V of Hapsburg Dynasty (most powerful family in Europe at this
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time)- holy roman emperor. E. Phillip II- receives the Spanish part of the Spanish empire. F. Martin V- Pope from 1417-1431. Election ended the Western Schism. G. Julius II- warrior pope because he fought over maintaining the power of the papacy. Oversaw Michelangelo’s painting of St. Peter’s Vecillica.
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