Philosophy Review – Primary Texts Euthyphro Socrates and Euthyphro Defining Piety – four definitions 1 – Example (persecuting wrongdoers) 2 - What the gods approve of (the gods disagree) 3 – What all of the gods approve of (which causes which?) 4 – Service to the gods, sacrifices, praising and honoring them (see def. 3) Crito Socrates and Crito Debating escape of Socrates Crito’s arguments – - Socrates is endangering the good reputation of his friends. - He does not need to worry about the money, as his friends can help him. - Socrates has support in other cities, including Thessaly and that exile would not be a bad option. - He would be acting unjustly by not fulfilling his parental obligations. - He would be acting cowardly by not resisting injustices. - He would be joining his enemies. - By not escaping when he has the chance, Socrates is betraying himself and helping his enemies. He is choosing the "easiest path" instead of the courageous, honorable and virtuous path, which Crito feels is to flee from certain death. - Socrates' family—a wife and three sons—will be deprived of a father and the education he would provide. Socrates’ Responses – - Public opinion does not matter because public opinion is not wise F Betrayal to himself is not important to the decision; the essential concern is whether to escape would be just. o By escaping he would be going against everything that he has preached. F If one has the ability to choose whether to obey a law, then he is destroying the power of the law. Socrates has entered into an implied contract (law) upon reaching adulthood and deciding to remain living in Athens; he has been protected by laws and it would be unjust for him to go against them.