Voltaire(1) (1) - 3 On Commerce and Toleration(1763 1764...

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3. On Commerce and Toleration (1763 & 1764)VoltaireFrançois-Marie Arouet (1694-1778), better known by his pen name “Voltaire,” was the century’s most successful writer, but his satirical pen earned him two terms of imprisonment in the Bastille. In exile in England to avoid another stay in jail, he developed a deep appreciation for the English constitution, respect for science, and relatively tolerant view of religious differences. When he returned to France he helped translate Newton’s work into French to spread the new learning. The selection “On Commerce” is taken fromPhilosophical Letters on England (1734), and “Tolerance” is taken from his Philosophical Dictionary (1764). Like his fellow philosophes, Voltaire was not an armchair theorist, but an agitator for intellectual and social change. Despite his fame, he found it prudent to retire to an estate near the Swiss border where it would be easier to escape the clutches of an increasingly conservative French monarchy.On CommerceCommerce, which has enriched the citizens of England, has helped to make them free,

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