PS10 Outline for Final Exam - 1 Universe is diversity and...

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1. Universe is diversity and unity a. Mill is the first person to talk about diversity b. Rousseau  i. Human diversity leads to human corruption ii. In the state of nature, people would really on instinct 1. Grizzly bears aren’t different 2. Humans have reason that separates us from animals iii. As we perfect ourselves, we try to be more perfect  iv. When we’re in the savage state, we’re all the same v. Human’s vs. animals 1. Human differences arise because of perfectibility 2. The sources of human diversity are also the sources of human  unhappiness.  vi. Geneva 1. “Cheap summary of social contract” 2. Everyone is equally subject to the laws vii.How to overcome diversity 2. Human Nature a. Plato: Tripartiate soul b. Hobbes i. Materialism 1. Humans don’t have souls or minds separate from the body.  Rather humans are machines whose thoughts and emotions op- erate according to physical laws and chains of cause and effect.   2. Natural to pursue self interests and pursue pleasure.   3. The state is like the human in that it is made to pursue pleasure  and self interests ii. State of Nature 1. The “natural condition of mankind” is what would exist if there  were no government, no civilization, no laws, and no common  power to restrain human nature.  The state of nature is a “war  against all,” in which human beings constantly seek to destroy  each other in order to purse power.  Life is “nasty, brutish and  short” in the state of nature 2. inherently violent and fearful 3. “war of every man against every man” 4. humans intuitively desire to obtain as much power and “good” as  they can, and there are no laws preventing them from harming  or killing others to attain what they desire. Thus, the state of  nature is a state of constant war, wherein humans live in per- petual fear of one another. This fear, in combination with their  faculties of reason, impels men to follow the fundamental law of  nature and seek peace among each other. Peace is attained only  by coming together to forge a social contract, whereby men con-
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sent to being ruled in a commonwealth governed by one su- preme authority. iii. State of War (caused by State of Nature) 1. No industry, no culture, no trade, no transportation, no know- ledge, no society 2. Everyone is equal in that everyone has the equal ability to kill  each other 3. State of Nature becomes State of War when a person takes  “pleasure in contemplating their own power in the acts of con- quest, which they pursue further than their security requires” iv. Good and Evil 1. Morality does not exist in the state of nature 2.
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