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MCB 2007 November 14th Lecture Notes

MCB 2007 November 14th Lecture Notes - November 14th...

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November 14 th Lecture Notes: (Ch. 18 - Cell-Cycle Control) The Cell Cycle (Role of regulatory kinases and protein degradation) Overview: o The eukaryotic cell cycle is divided into four phases M phase (when the nucleus divides – mitosis - and the cell splits in two – cytokinesis) Interphase – the period between one M phase and the next, when the cell isn’t dividing G 1 - gap phase where the cell grows and undergoes normal metabolic activities S phase – DNA replicates, chromosomes duplicate G 2 – second gap phase where cell grows and prepares for mitosis o A central control system triggers the major processes of the cell cycle. Hartwell, Hunt, and Nurse – Cytoplasmic control over cell cycle fused interphase cells with mitotic cells (both entered M phase) Oocyte maturation (when injected with cytoplasm of a metaphase cell, a G2 arrested oocyte began to mature) the sequence of phases must be preserved in order for the cell cycle to go through correctly various molecular brakes serve as checkpoints ensure that the cell is ready to proceed to the next cycle The Cell-Cycle Control System o Discovery: Sea Urchin and frog embryos served as useful models for identifying the proteins that regulate the cell cycle
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