Midterm Study Guide

Midterm Study Guide - Political Science 40 Midterm Study...

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Political Science 40 Midterm Study Guide Summer 2007 1. Why do Government policies pose dilemmas in a complex, modern society? a. Original dilemma: i. Freedom vs. order ii. (Anarchy vs. totalitarism (to good of the whole)) b. Modern dilemma – since the depression of the 40s: i. Freedom vs. equality ii. The country is set up for a huge debate, where 40 % is against, 40 % for and 20 % passive. c. These political dilemmas originate from the oppositional theory about the state formation: i. Freedom ii. Order iii. Equality d. Every government is going to choose which of the competing/conflicting values they want to emphasize. 2. Why are conflicts over fundamental values inherent in any political system? 3. What is the oldest objective of government? a. People surrender their freedom to government to receive government benefits like maintaining order and providing public goods b. There is no way for a government to control and grant complete personal freedom because then they wouldn’t be able to control c. Maintaining Order i. Definition of order 1. have laws to preserve life and protect property a. Thomas Hobbes was a proponent of government because he says that without rules people will live as predators who steal and kill for their personal benefit i. If there is a single ruler he must have unquestioned authority ii. This is the price to pay for security 1. This explains why Iraq broke into chaos after Hussein was overthrown
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iii. Government is the only way to ensure survival of the people b. John Locke believed that protecting property was more important and wrote that the primary function of the government should be to protect life, liberty, and property i. Government should defend property and property rights and allow individual pursuits c. Karl Marx believed in communism which says that all land and productive facilities should be given to the people—in effect, to the government. This means there is no private ownership d. Providing Public Goods i. Public goods are benefits available to people after taxes, which are able to be obtained only after government has established order ii. How much power should the government use to tax? e. Promoting Equality i. The state tries to promote economic equality by taking from the rich and redistributing it to the poor. Using the state to redistribute money to make the gap between rich and poor smaller was a Marxian idea ii. Government can also promote social equality like granting gay people the ability to marry. Social values may clash with the government’s advances in social equality 4. What are the basic concepts in the political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes? a. Thomas Hobbes was a proponent of government because he says that without rules people will live as predators who steal and kill for their personal benefit i. If there is a single ruler he must have unquestioned authority ii. This is the price to pay for security 1. This explains why Iraq broke into chaos after Hussein was overthrown iii. Government is the only way to ensure survival of the people
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This note was uploaded on 03/05/2008 for the course POL SCI 40 taught by Professor Schwartz during the Summer '06 term at UCLA.

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Midterm Study Guide - Political Science 40 Midterm Study...

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