Ecology of Seedless Vascular plants: The popular image of ferns growing in moist shady woodland nooks, is far from being a complete picture of the habitats where ferns can be found growing. Fern species live in a wide variety of habitats , from remote mountain elevations, to dry desert rock faces, to bodies of water or in open fields. Ferns in general may be thought of as largely being specialists in marginal habitats, often succeeding in places where various environmental factors limit the success of flowering plants . Some ferns are among the world's most serious weed species, including the bracken fern growing in the British highlands, or the mosquito fern ( Azolla ) growing in tropical lakes, both species form large aggressively spreading colonies. There are four particular types of habitats that ferns are found in: moist, shady forests ; crevices in rock faces, especially when sheltered from the full sun; acid wetlands including bogs and swamps ; and tropical trees , where many species are
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