2112sp16sg3 - History Final Exam Study Guide the Cold War o...

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History Final Exam Study Guidethe Cold WaroThe beginning of the Cold War, 1945-1953Conflict between the US and the Soviet Union: The Super PowersIt began 1945 and ended in 1989There was no direct fighting between the US and the Soviet UnionThe cold war was fought in different waysThey competed in the arms race and the Olympic GamesThey got other countries to fight on their behalfCapitalism versus communism: They tried to prove their system was the bestThey threatened and spied on each otherRoosevelt (USA), Stalin (USSR), Churchill (Britain)most of the world (except for Africa and some parts of Asia) were dividedoPotsdam Conference (July-August 1945)Issues of disagreement between western Allies and the Soviet Unionwhether to allow election in PolandThe fate of Germanythe Truman Doctrineovery similar to containmentoestablished that the US would provide political, military and economic assistance to all democratic nations under threat from authoritarian forcesoLead to the Vietnam War and Korean WarWar Powers Act of 1973 oLimits presidential power to go to war without congressional approvalNATOoNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization: Mutual defense agreement between the US and its allies oUnder the NATO pact, if the soviets tried to take control of west Berlin, then that would be an attack on the US and the US would go to war with the Soviets oWarsaw Pact6 – Soveit/eastern European counterpart to NATOStrategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT)oForeign policy by Nixon that called for the limitation of both defensive and offensive arms by both the US and the Soviet Union during the Cold War oNeither side limited their arms build up and negotiations continued with Carter for SALT IIMarshall PlanoSecretary of State George Marshall proposed the European Recovery Plan (or Marshall Plan): US financial aid to European nations to promote economic recovery and thus stabilize democratic governments oProvided over $13.5 billion in aid to the nations of western EuropeTitle IX of the Educational Amendments Act (1972)
History Final Exam Study GuideoA goal of NOW (National Organization of Women)oEqual access to employment for womenKorean WaroAfter the Japanese withdrawal from Korea after WWII, the Allies faced the task of creating a new4 Korean nationoThe Soviet Union took advantage of this and set up a communist government in the North while the US set up a western-style govn’t in the SouthoUS and Soviets couldn’t agree on terms to unify Korea and the US military was vulnerable to Communist assault due to the Cold WaroOver 80,000 NK soldiers crossed the boundary into SKoSeoul (SK capital) was captured in 3 daysoTruman quickly decided to wage war under the UN rather than seeking a declaration from Congress (war by order, not by vote of Congress)oTruman’s assumption that Stalin was behind the NK invasion prompted him to

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