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Comm 200 exam 2

Comm 200 exam 2 - Chapter 4 1 Classical Conditioning Model...

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Chapter 4 1. Classical Conditioning Model a. To teach an animal/person to respond to a new stimulus in the same way it responded to the original stimulus b. US (meat) = UR (salivation) c. US + CS (bell) = UR d. CS (bell) = CR (salivation) 2. Operant Conditioning Model a. To see how an effect can be increased or decreased by reward or punishment i. NO concern with stimulus , only trying to increase/decrease response b. Reward increases and extends behavior c. Punishment decreases and extinguishes behavior 3. Contextual, Trait and State views of behavior a. Contextual i. behavior varies across contexts b. Trait i. explains different responses to same stimuli ii. Creates an attitude test to measure response toward something separated +/- attitude and then offer a choice 1. Ex. Chocolate --- ice-cream 2. S – O – R where O is cognitive psychological variable a. i.e. ego involvement – cannot be seen iii. behaviors consistent across contexts c. State i. Behavior is a result of unique circumstances at the time 1. A result of specific time and place variables d. Cross Situational Consistency i. Deals with explaining behavior ii. 3 positions 1. situationist a. behavior is shaped by the situation alone 2. trait a. individuals’ predispositions explain behavior 3. interactionist a. behavior is the joint product of traits and situational variables 4. Communication Apprehension a. 4 types (CA CATS) i. Context based CA – location is key (boss in office) ii. Audience based – depends on who, not location (mom or dad) iii. Trait-like –always afraid of public speaking iv. Situational - depends on psychological conditions b. Receiver apprehension i. Fear that you have to pick up info that you won’t fully comprehend and be able to report back c. Helping CA i. “Systematic desensitization” 1. Start small – move slowly toward phobia 2. Continuously open person to the phobia 3. Learn ways to control fear d. Manifestations i. Butterflies, shaking hands and knees, sweating, dry mouth , elevated heart rate e. Consequences i. Less academic success, less satisfied with work, not viewed as leaders, less attractive than those with low CA 5. Communicator Style a. Focuses on presentation traits, HOW messages are communicated ( not content) i. Communicator image (CIA IPOD DAC) 1. Attentive – alert, listening carefully 2. Animated – use of gestures or eyes to convey meaning 3. Dominant – strong, wants control 4. Dramatic – uses jokes or stories with exaggeration
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5. Contentious – negative quality : argue too much 6. Impression leaving – attempt to create a lasting image 7. Open – predisposition to reveal thoughts, feelings or other personal info 8. Precise – exact definitions and documentation to support claims 6. Self-Disclosure a. When individuals disclose intimate info, in order to build relationships b. Reciprocity – a mutual interchange of favors or privileges and deals with comm because you expect a reciprocal SD c. Role of SD in relational development – trust building is a vital component
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Comm 200 exam 2 - Chapter 4 1 Classical Conditioning Model...

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