Abnormal Ch 5

Abnormal Ch 5 - CHAPTER 5 ANXIETY DISORDERS Fear vs Anxiety...

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CHAPTER 5: ANXIETY DISORDERS H Fear vs. Anxiety? - Fear is a state of immediate alarm in response to a serious, known threat to one’s well-being - Anxiety is a state of alarm in response to a vague sense of threat or danger - Both have the same physiological features: increase in respiration, perspiration, muscle tension, etc. - Can be disabling if triggered by inappropriate situations (which can lead to the development of anxiety disorders), but good because “fight or flight” response is protective. H General Info - Most common mental disorders in US - In any given year, 18% of the adult population in the U.S. experiences one of the six DSM-IV-TR anxiety disorders - Close to 29% develop one of the disorders at some point in their lives - Only ~20% of these individuals seek treatment - Most individuals with one anxiety disorder suffer from a second disorder, as well - Anxiety disorders cost $42 billion each year in health care, lost wages, and lost productivity H Six disorders: 1. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) 2. Phobias 3. Panic disorder 4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) 5. Acute stress disorder 6. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) H Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) o Characterized by excessive anxiety under most circumstances and worry about practically anything o Vague, intense concerns and fearfulness Often called “free-floating” anxiety “Danger” not a factor o Symptoms include restlessness, easy fatigue, irritability, muscle tension, and/or sleep disturbance o Symptoms last at least six months o The disorder is common in Western society o Affects ~3% of the population in any given year and ~6% at sometime during their lives o Usually first appears in childhood or adolescence o Women are diagnosed more often than men by 2:1 ratio
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Sociocultural Perspective GAD o According to this theory, GAD is most likely to develop in people faced with social conditions that truly are dangerous o Research supports this theory (example: Three Mile Island in 1979) o One of the most powerful forms of societal stress is poverty o Why? Run-down communities, higher crime rates, fewer educational and job opportunities, and greater risk for health problems o As would be predicted by the model, there are higher rates of GAD in lower SES groups o Since race is closely tied to income and job opportunities in the U.S., it is also tied to the prevalence of GAD o In any given year, ~6% of African Americans and 3.1% of Caucasians suffer from GAD African American women have highest rates (6.6%) o Although poverty and other social pressures may create a climate for GAD, other factors are clearly at work o How do we know this? Most people living in dangerous environments do not develop GAD Psychodynamic Perspective GAD o Freud believed that all children experience anxiety o Realistic anxiety when faced with actual danger o Neurotic anxiety when prevented from expressing id impulses o Moral anxiety when punished for expressing id impulses o One can use ego defense mechanisms to control these forms of anxiety, but when
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Abnormal Ch 5 - CHAPTER 5 ANXIETY DISORDERS Fear vs Anxiety...

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