Abnormal FINAL Ch 17

Abnormal FINAL Ch 17 - 1 Chapter 17 Disorders of Childhood...

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Chapter 17: Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence Abnormal functioning can occur at any time in life Some patterns of abnormality, however, are more likely to emerge during particular periods Childhood and Adolescence Theorists often view life as a series of stages on the road from birth to death Freud proposed that each child passes through the same five stages of psychosexual development: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital Erikson added the stage of “old age” Although theorists may disagree with the details of these schemes, most agree with the idea that we face key pressures during each stage in life and either grow or decline depending on how we meet those pressures People often think of childhood as a carefree and happy time – yet it can also be frightening and upsetting Children of all cultures typically experience at least some emotional and behavioral problems as they encounter new people and situations Surveys indicate that worry is a common experience Bedwetting, nightmares, and temper tantrums are other problems experienced by many children Adolescence can also be a difficult period Physical and sexual changes, social and academic pressures, personal doubts, and temptation cause many teenagers to feel anxious, confused, and depressed Along with these common psychological difficulties, at least one-fifth of all children and adolescents in North America also experience a diagnosable psychological disorder Boys with disorders outnumber girls with disorders, even though most of the adult psychological disorders are more common in women Certain disorders of children – childhood anxiety disorders and childhood depression – have adult counterparts In contrast, other childhood disorders – conduct disorders, ADHD, and elimination disorders, for example – usually disappear or radically change form by adulthood There also are disorders that begin in birth or childhood and persist in stable forms into adult life These include mental retardation and autism Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder Oppositional defiant disorder Children consistently displaying extreme hostility and defiance may qualify for a diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder This disorder is characterized by repeated arguments with adults, loss of temper, anger, and resentment 1
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Children with this disorder ignore adult requests and rules, try to annoy people, and blame others for their mistakes and problems Approximately 8% of children qualify for this diagnosis The disorder is more common in boys than girls before puberty but equal in both sexes after puberty Conduct Disorder Children with conduct disorder, a more severe problem, repeatedly violate the basic rights of others They are often aggressive and may be physically cruel and violent Many steal from, threaten, or harm their victims, committing such crimes as shoplifting, vandalism, mugging, and armed robbery
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This note was uploaded on 05/14/2008 for the course PSYCH 107 taught by Professor Bluhm during the Spring '07 term at Allegheny.

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Abnormal FINAL Ch 17 - 1 Chapter 17 Disorders of Childhood...

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